Experimental results are presented from vacuum-ultraviolet free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode. The generation of ultrashort radiation pulses became possible due to specific tailoring of the bunch charge distribution. A complete characterization of the linear and nonlinear modes of the SASE FEL… (More)
Time reversal dictates that nonmagnetic, centrosymmetric crystals cannot be spin-polarized as a whole. However, it has been recently shown that the electronic structure in these crystals can in fact show regions of high spin-polarization, as long as it is probed locally in real and in reciprocal space. In this article we present the first observation of… (More)
The evolution of the electronic band structure of the simple ferromagnets Fe, Co, and Ni during their well-known ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition has been under debate for decades, with no clear and even contradicting experimental observations so far. Using time- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, we can make a movie on how the… (More)
Three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators are a new state of quantum matter, which exhibits both a bulk band structure with an insulating energy gap as well as metallic spin-polarized Dirac fermion states when interfaced with a topologically trivial material. There have been various attempts to tune the Dirac point to a desired energetic position for… (More)
6 e pick−up − photo− multpl.