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Phylogenetic studies of the genus Plasmodium have been performed using sequences of the nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid genes. Here we have analyzed the adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the salvage of host purines needed by malaria parasites for DNA synthesis. The ASL gene is present in several eukaryotic as well as(More)
Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS; NOS2) produces NO and related reactive nitrogen species, which are critical effectors of the innate host response and are required for the intracellular killing of pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania major. We have identified SPRY domain-containing SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling)(More)
Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found mainly in grapes, possesses a variety of beneficial activities including anticancer, antimicrobial and antiviral. However, there is no information about its effects on kinetoplastid parasites such as Leishmania. Leishmania is a human pathogen responsible for a spectrum of diseases known as leishmaniases and a(More)
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost(More)
Leishmaniasis is a disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to serious disfigurement and fatal systemic infection. WHO has classified the disease as emerging and uncontrolled and estimates that the infection results in two million new cases a year. There are 12 million people currently infected worldwide, and leishmaniasis threatens 350 million(More)
Membrane glycoconjugates on the Leishmania parasites, notably leishmanolysin and lipophosphoglycan, have been implicated in attachment and invasion of host macrophages. However, the function of parasite surface Ag 2 (PSA-2) and membrane proteophosphoglycan (PPG) has not been elucidated. In this study we demonstrate that native and recombinant Leishmania(More)
Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS)5 is thought to act as a tumour suppressor through negative regulation of JAK/STAT and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. However, the mechanism/s by which SOCS5 acts on these two distinct pathways is unclear. We show for the first time that SOCS5 can interact directly with JAK via a unique, conserved region in(More)
Bismuth(III) complexes of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs) and substituted benzoic acids (o-methoxybenzoic acid, m-methoxybenzoic acid, o-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid, and 5-[(R/S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl carbamoyl]-2-pyridine carboxylic acid) have been synthesised and fully characterised. Two new bis-carboxylato bismuth(More)
Nine different β-thioxoketones of general formula R(1)C(=O)CH2C(=S)R(2) (R(1) = C6H5, R(2) = C6H5L1; R(1) = C6H5, R(2) = p-CF3C6H4L2; R(1) = p-MeOC6H4, R(2) = C6H5L3; R(1) = p-MeOC6H4, R(2) = p-CF3C6H4L4; R(1) = C5H4N, R(2) = C6H5L5; R(1) = p-IC6H4, R(2) = C6H5L6; R(1) = C6H5, R(2) = p-IC6H4L7; R(1) = C6H5, R(2) = C10H7L8 and R(1) = CH3, R(2) = C6H5L9) and(More)