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The extragonadal synthesis of biological active steroid hormones from their inactive precursors in target tissues is named "intracrinology." Of particular importance for the progression of estrogen-dependent cancers is the in situ formation of the biological most active estrogen, 17beta-estradiol (E2). In cancer cells, conversion of inactive steroid hormone(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor progression, suppression of antitumor immunity and dissemination. Blood monocytes infiltrate the tumor region and are primed by local microenvironmental conditions to promote tumor growth and invasion. Although many of the interacting cytokines and factors are known for the tumor-macrophage(More)
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is distinguished by aggressive growth, early dissemination and a poor prognosis at advanced stage. The remarkably high count of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of SCLC allowed for the establishment of permanent CTC cultures at our institution for the first time. CTCs are assumed to have characteristics of cancer stem cells(More)
Advanced small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a dismal prognosis. Modulation of the camptothecin topotecan, approved for second-line therapy, may improve response. Our recent finding of synergistic enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of camptothecin (CPT) by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitors is extended here to a panel of camptothecin analogs comprising(More)
Extended-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) responds to platinum/vepeside-based first-line chemotherapy but relapses rapidly as drug-resistant tumor. Topotecan (TPT) is the single chemotherapeutic agent approved for second-line treatment of SCLC. However, the response to TPT is short-lived and novel treatment modalities need to be developed. Sequential(More)
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis and is found disseminated at first presentation in the majority of cases. The cell biological mechanisms underlying metastasis and drug resistance are not clear. SCLC is characterized by high numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and we were able to expand several CTC lines ex vivo and to relate(More)
Anthocyans (anthocyanins and their aglycones anthocyanidins) are colorful pigments, naturally occurring in fruits. They exhibit many biological effects and have potent health benefits. Anthocyans are widely used as dietary supplements and the safety of products containing them is of great importance. To investigate whether anthocyans influence the(More)
The expression of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) was elucidated in cell lines from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and lung carcinoids and in paraffin-embedded samples from primary and metastatic SCLCs. We found a strong relationship between OATP expression and the origin of the cells, as cells from primary or metastatic SCLC and carcinoid(More)
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents 15% of lung cancers and is characterized by early dissemination, development of chemoresistance and a poor prognosis. A host of diverse drugs failed invariably and its mechanisms of global chemoresistance have not been characterized so far. SCLC represents the prototype of an aggressive and highly metastatic tumor(More)
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