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BACKGROUND Smear-positive pulmonary TB is the most infectious form of TB. Previous studies on the effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on TB treatment outcomes among these highly infectious patients demonstrated conflicting results, reducing understanding of important issues. METHODS All adult smear-positive pulmonary TB patients diagnosed between(More)
This study describes the distribution and frequencies of strain types by protein A-encoding gene (spa) typing among a total of 200 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) single-patient isolates collected between 2000 and 2005 at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Nine frequent spa types accounted for 49.5 % of MRSA isolates, whereas spa(More)
We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detection of Clostridium difficile in 1,468 stool specimens. First, specimens were screened by an immunoassay for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (C.DIFF CHEK-60). Second, screen-positive specimens underwent toxin testing by a rapid toxin A/B assay (TOX A/B QUIK CHEK); toxin-negative specimens were(More)
Immigrants from high-burden countries and HIV-coinfected individuals are risk groups for tuberculosis (TB) in countries with low TB incidence. Therefore, we studied their role in transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Switzerland. We included all TB patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort and a sample of patients from the national TB registry. We(More)
BACKGROUND Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used in molecular-epidemiological investigations of bacterial pathogens, despite cost- and time-intensive analyses. We combined strain-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and targeted WGS to investigate a tuberculosis cluster spanning 21 years in Bern, Switzerland. METHODS On the(More)
We evaluated the epidemiologic factors of patients seeking treatment for travel-associated illness from January 2004 through May 2005 at the University Hospital of Zurich. When comparing persons whose purpose of travel was visiting friends and relatives (VFR travelers; n = 121) with tourists and other travelers (n = 217), VFR travelers showed a distinct(More)
BACKGROUND Many HIV-infected children in Southern Africa have been started on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but loss to follow up (LTFU) can be substantial. We analyzed mortality in children retained in care and in all children starting ART, taking LTFU into account. PATIENTS AND METHODS Children who started ART before the age of 16 years in 10 ART(More)
There is increasing evidence that strain variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) might influence the outcome of tuberculosis infection and disease. To assess genotype-phenotype associations, phylogenetically robust molecular markers and appropriate genotyping tools are required. Most current genotyping methods for MTBC are based on mobile or(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the incidence of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and cancers and the role of a history of tuberculosis (TB) as a risk factor for developing these conditions in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Southern Africa. METHODS Five ART programmes from Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa participated.(More)
BACKGROUND Traditionally anaesthetic drugs for obstetrics are prepared as a contingency and stored until they are required for emergency use or have expired. Expiry is based on presumed reduction in sterility and efficacy although evidence for this is inconsistent. Preparation in advance introduces the risk of error and potential for tampering by a third(More)