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BACKGROUND To establish and maintain their polarized morphology, neurons employ active transport driven by molecular motors to sort cargo between axons and dendrites. However, the basic traffic rules governing polarized transport on neuronal microtubule arrays are unclear. RESULTS Here we show that the microtubule minus-end-directed motor dynein is(More)
Dendritic spines are the major sites of excitatory synaptic input, and their morphological changes have been linked to learning and memory processes. Here, we report that growing microtubule plus ends decorated by the microtubule tip-tracking protein EB3 enter spines and can modulate spine morphology. We describe p140Cap/SNIP, a regulator of Src tyrosine(More)
During cell division, mitotic spindles are assembled by microtubule-based motor proteins. The bipolar organization of spindles is essential for proper segregation of chromosomes, and requires plus-end-directed homotetrameric motor proteins of the widely conserved kinesin-5 (BimC) family. Hypotheses for bipolar spindle formation include the 'push-pull(More)
In neurons, the distinct molecular composition of axons and dendrites is established through polarized targeting mechanisms, but it is currently unclear how nonpolarized cargoes, such as mitochondria, become uniformly distributed over these specialized neuronal compartments. Here, we show that TRAK family adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, which link(More)
Hypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through various cellular mechanisms, including dampening of transforming growth(More)
Microtubules are polymeric protein structures and components of the cytoskeleton. Their dynamic polymerization is important for diverse cellular functions. The centrosome is the classical site of microtubule nucleation and is thought to be essential for axon growth and neuronal differentiation--processes that require microtubule assembly. We found that the(More)
Although purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living cells, we utilized the FKBP-rapalog-FRB heterodimerization system to(More)
Microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are widely used for treatment of cancer and other diseases, and a detailed understanding of the mechanism of their action is important for the development of improved microtubule-directed therapies. Although there is a large body of data on the interactions of different MTAs with purified tubulin and microtubules, much(More)
To establish and maintain their polarized morphology, neurons employ active transport driven by cytoskeletal motor proteins to sort cargo between axons and dendrites. These motors can move in a specific direction over either microtubules (kinesins, dynein) or actin filaments (myosins). The basic traffic rules governing polarized transport on the neuronal(More)
Small-molecule inhibitors of kinesin-5 (refs. 1-3), a protein essential for eukaryotic cell division, represent alternatives to antimitotic agents that target tubulin. While tubulin is needed for multiple intracellular processes, the known functions of kinesin-5 are limited to dividing cells, making it likely that kinesin-5 inhibitors would have fewer side(More)