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Dendritic spines are the major sites of excitatory synaptic input, and their morphological changes have been linked to learning and memory processes. Here, we report that growing microtubule plus ends decorated by the microtubule tip-tracking protein EB3 enter spines and can modulate spine morphology. We describe p140Cap/SNIP, a regulator of Src tyrosine(More)
During cell division, mitotic spindles are assembled by microtubule-based motor proteins. The bipolar organization of spindles is essential for proper segregation of chromosomes, and requires plus-end-directed homotetrameric motor proteins of the widely conserved kinesin-5 (BimC) family. Hypotheses for bipolar spindle formation include the 'push-pull(More)
Microtubules are polymeric protein structures and components of the cytoskeleton. Their dynamic polymerization is important for diverse cellular functions. The centrosome is the classical site of microtubule nucleation and is thought to be essential for axon growth and neuronal differentiation--processes that require microtubule assembly. We found that the(More)
Hypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through various cellular mechanisms, including dampening of transforming growth(More)
BACKGROUND To establish and maintain their polarized morphology, neurons employ active transport driven by molecular motors to sort cargo between axons and dendrites. However, the basic traffic rules governing polarized transport on neuronal microtubule arrays are unclear. RESULTS Here we show that the microtubule minus-end-directed motor dynein is(More)
Microtubule (MT) crosslinking proteins of the ase1p/PRC1/Map65 family play a major role in the construction of MT networks such as the mitotic spindle. Most homologs in this family have been shown to localize with a remarkable specificity to sets of MTs that overlap with an antiparallel relative orientation [1-4]. Regulatory proteins bind to(More)
In neurons, the distinct molecular composition of axons and dendrites is established through polarized targeting mechanisms, but it is currently unclear how nonpolarized cargoes, such as mitochondria, become uniformly distributed over these specialized neuronal compartments. Here, we show that TRAK family adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, which link(More)
To establish and maintain their polarized morphology, neurons employ active transport driven by cytoskeletal motor proteins to sort cargo between axons and dendrites. These motors can move in a specific direction over either microtubules (kinesins, dynein) or actin filaments (myosins). The basic traffic rules governing polarized transport on the neuronal(More)
The kinesin-13 family member mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) is a potent microtubule depolymerase. Paradoxically, in cells it accumulates at the growing, rather than the shortening, microtubule plus ends. This plus-end tracking behavior requires the interaction between MCAK and members of the end-binding protein (EB) family, but the effect of(More)
Although assembly of the mitotic spindle is known to be a precisely controlled process, regulation of the key motor proteins involved remains poorly understood. In eukaryotes, homotetrameric kinesin-5 motors are required for bipolar spindle formation. Eg5, the vertebrate kinesin-5, has two modes of motion: an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent(More)