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We report the isolation of bcl-x, a bcl-2-related gene that can function as a bcl-2-independent regulator of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Alternative splicing results in two distinct bcl-x mRNAs. The protein product of the larger mRNA, bcl-xL, is similar in size and predicted structure to Bcl-2. When stably transfected into an IL-3-dependent cell(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study aims to accurately estimate the in vivo brain-to-skull conductivity ratio by means of cortical imaging technique. Simultaneous extra- and intra-cranial potential recordings induced by subdural current stimulation were analyzed to get the estimation. METHODS The effective brain-to-skull conductivity ratio was estimated in vivo(More)
Nowadays, several types of brain imaging device are available to provide images of the functional activity of the cerebral cortex based on hemodynamic, metabolic, or electromagnetic measurements. However, static images of brain regions activated during particular tasks do not convey the information of how these regions communicate with each other. In this(More)
Transmembrane pores induced by amphiphilic peptides, including melittin, are often modeled with the barrel-stave model after the alamethicin pore. We examine this assumption on melittin by using two methods, oriented circular dichroism (OCD) for detecting the orientation of melittin helix and neutron scattering for detecting transmembrane pores. OCD spectra(More)
OBJECTIVE To test a technique called Directed Transfer Function (DTF) for the estimation of human cortical connectivity, by means of simulation study and human study, using high resolution EEG recordings related to finger movements. METHODS The method of the Directed Transfer Function (DTF) is a frequency-domain approach, based on a multivariate(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on ConA-induced T cell proliferation or IL-2 production by resting murine T cells were only observed when macrophages, but not when activated B cells, dendritic cells, or L cells, were used as accessory cells. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-10 on the inhibition of(More)
Most examples of cell death in animals are controlled by a genetic program that is activated within the dying cell. The apoptotic process is further regulated by a set of genes that act as repressors of cell death. Of these, bcl-2 is expressed in a variety of embryonic and postnatal tissues which suggests a critical role for bcl-2 in organogenesis and(More)
A selenium-containing catalytic antibody (Se-4A4), prepared by converting reactive serine residues of a monoclonal antibody (4A4) raised against a GSH derivative into selenocysteines, acts as a mimic of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPX). To clarify the mechanism of action of this catalytic antibody, detailed studies on kinetic behaviour and biological(More)
In the last decade, the possibility to noninvasively estimate cortical activity and connectivity has been highlighted by the application of the techniques known as high resolution EEG. These techniques include a subject's multi-compartment head model (scalp, skull, dura mater, cortex) constructed from individual magnetic resonance images, multi-dipole(More)
Apaf-1 plays a critical role in apoptosis by binding to and activating procaspase-9. We have identified a novel Apaf-1 cDNA encoding a protein of 1248 amino acids containing an insertion of 11 residues between the CARD and ATPase domains, and another 43 amino acid insertion creating an additional WD-40 repeat. The product of this Apaf-1 cDNA activated(More)