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Risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection were identified using a 1:1 matched case-control design. The work was conducted in the municipality of Pedro de Toledo, São Paulo State, Brazil, an area where the snail host is Biomphalaria tenagophila. Information on water contact patterns, knowledge, attitudes and practices (kap), socioeconomic and sanitary(More)
This work was undertaken in the municipality of Pedro de Toledo (São Paulo State, Brazil) in 1987, to clarify aspects related to the transmission levels of Schistosoma mansoni in a human population where the snail host is Biomphalaria tenagophila. Since 1980 a control programme has been undertaken in this municipality. Urban and rural populations (4,719(More)
The schistosomiasis is transmitted by Biomphalaria tenagophila in our study area (Pedro de Toledo, São Paulo, Brazil). From 1980 to 1990 epidemiological surveys in a population of 4,000 inhabitants, has shown that: prevalences by Kato-Katz (KKT), immunofluorescence (FT) and intradermal (IDT) techniques were 22.8%, 55.5% and 51.8%, respectively; intensity of(More)
Knowledge of contagion among economies is a relevant issue in economics. The canonical model of contagion is an alternative in this case. Given the existence of endogenous variables in the model, instrumental variables can be used to decrease the bias of the OLS estimator. In the presence of heteroskedastic disturbances this paper proposes the use of(More)
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