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BACKGROUND L. braziliensis causes cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis. Wound healing neutrophil (PMN) and macrophage responses made following the bite of the vector sand fly contribute to disease progression in mice. To look at the interplay between PMN and macrophages in disease progression in humans we asked whether polymorphisms at genes that(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) produced in macrophages plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent. A previous study has demonstrated that 20% of the L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from initial cutaneous lesions of patients from the endemic area of Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, were NO resistant. Additionally, 5 to 11% of the patients did not respond to(More)
BACKGROUND Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is treated with parenteral drugs for decades with decreasing rate cures. Miltefosine is an oral medication with anti-leishmania activity and may increase the cure rates and improve compliance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This study is a randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the(More)
determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishma-niasis versus disseminated(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. METHODOLOGY We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil(More)
A 45-year-old otherwise healthy male from an endemic region for Leishmania braziliensis infection in Bahia, Brazil, presented with three erosive hemorrhagic infiltrated plaques on the left shin accompanied with lymphadenopathy in the groin since one month. A Leishmania skin test performed on the left forearm was strongly positive (20 × 18 mm). Two days(More)
BACKGROUND Disseminated leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease, mostly due to L. braziliensis, which has clinical and histopathological features distinct from cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS In the current study we evaluated the in vitro production of the cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-5 and IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)(More)
Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules) in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW)-positive cells in the inflamed(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most frequent clinical form of tegumentary leishmaniasis and is characterised by a single or a few ulcerated skin lesions that may disseminate into multiple ulcers and papules, which characterise disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). In this study, cells were quantified using immunohistochemistry and haematoxylin and eosin(More)
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil is mostly caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, with known forms of the disease being cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated (DL) leishmaniasis. The development of the lesion in ATL is related both to the persistence of the Leishmania in the skin and to the parasite-triggered immune and(More)