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Stimulation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP induces cell membrane depolarization, increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and, in most cases, permeabilization of the cell membrane to molecules up to 900 Da. After the activation of P2X7, at least two phenomena occur: the opening of low-conductance (8 pS) cationic channels and pore formation. At least two(More)
In the immune system, extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) mediates a variety of effects mainly through activation of a particular receptor subtype, the pore-forming P(2Z)/P2X(7) purinoceptor. This purinergic receptor has been described chiefly in cells of hemopoietic origin such as T cells, thymocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and phagocytic cells(More)
Recent studies on the P2X(7) receptor in 2BH4 cells and peritoneal macrophages have demonstrated that the raise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induces a pore opening similar to P2X(7) receptor pore. Herein, we have investigated whether the pore activated by the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is associated to P2X(7) receptor. Using(More)
The existence of functional gap junctions in migratory cells of the immune system is a controversial issue. In this report, we have focused on one particular cell type, namely the macrophages, because connexin-43, a protein that forms gap junctions, has been described in peritoneal macrophages and a macrophage cell line (J774), by Northern and Western blot(More)
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated cation channel, is expressed predominantly in leukocytes. Activation of P2X7R has been implicated in the formation of a cytolytic pore (i.e., a large conductance channel) that allows the passage of molecules up to 900 Da in macrophages. At least two hypotheses have been presented to explain the conversion of a(More)
It is well established that the process of thymocyte differentiation and maturation occurs in the thymus, where cell-to-cell communication is essential for providing the messages to T-cell precursors. At least two pathways are important for such communication: one via membrane surface molecules and the other via soluble mediators such as cytokines and some(More)
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by extracellular ATP and triggers the secretion of several proinflammatory substances, such as IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, and nitric oxide. Recently, several preclinical studies have demonstrated that this receptor participates in inflammation and pain mechanisms. Taken together, these(More)
We report on a quantitative analysis of relationships between the number of homicides, population size and ten other urban metrics. By using data from Brazilian cities, we show that well-defined average scaling laws with the population size emerge when investigating the relations between population and number of homicides as well as population and urban(More)
Gap junctions are intercellular channels which connect adjacent cells and allow direct exchange of molecules of low molecular weight between them. Such a communication has been described as fundamental in many systems due to its importance in coordination, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, it has been shown that gap junctional intercellular(More)