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BACKGROUND Escherichia coli strains are commonly found in the gut microflora of warm-blooded animals. These strains can be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups, A, B1, B2 and D, which can be divided into seven subgroups (A0, A1, B1, B22, B23, D1 and D2), according to the combination of the three genetic markers chuA, yjaA and DNA fragment(More)
This paper explores the motivation and prerequisites of a successful integration of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) tools into current foreign language teaching and learning (FLTL) practice. We focus on two aspects, which we argue to be important for effective ICALL system development and use: (i) the relationship between activity(More)
Second language acquisition research since the 90s has emphasized the importance of supporting awareness of language categories and forms, and input enhancement techniques have been proposed to make target language features more salient for the learner. We present an NLP architecture and web-based implementation providing automatic visual input enhancement(More)
Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems (ILTS) typically focus on analyzing learner input to diagnose learner errors and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research (cf. Heift & Schulze, 2007), such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Arguably, one reason for this state of affairs is that(More)
We describe a knowledge and resource light system for an automatic morphological analysis and tagging of Brazilian Por-tuguese. 1 We avoid the use of labor intensive resources; particularly, large annotated corpora and lexicons. Instead, we use (i) an annotated corpus of Peninsular Spanish, a language related to Portuguese, (ii) an unannotated corpus of(More)
Student models for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) have largely focused on the acquisition of grammatical structures. In this paper, we motivate a broader perspective of student models for ICALL that incorporates insights from current research on second language acquisition and language testing. We argue for a student model that(More)