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The spatial-temporal characteristics of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) changes elicited in neurons and astrocytes by various types of stimuli were investigated by means of confocal fluorescent microscopy in acute rat brain slices loaded with the Ca2+ indicator indo-1. Neurons and astrocytes from the visual cortex and CA1 hippocampal region were identified(More)
Astrocytes in the brain form an intimately associated network with neurons. They respond to neuronal activity and synaptically released glutamate by raising intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), which could represent the start of back-signalling to neurons. Here we show that coactivation of the AMPA/kainate and metabotropic glutamate receptors(More)
To obtain insights into the spatiotemporal characteristics and mechanism of Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes, we developed a new experimental approach using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transfected with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), which act as glutamate biosensors, plated on cultured astrocytes. We here show that oscillations of(More)
Calcium ions play crucial roles in a large variety of cell functions. The recent proposal that changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in astrocytes underline a reciprocal communication system between neurons and astrocytes encourages the interest in the definition of the various components participating in this novel Ca2+ signaling(More)
The most important and broadly used chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reviewed. After a short description of the state of the art, for each kind of CSP the most important contributions published in the last couple of years are summarized. For the sake of classification, these works have been divided into(More)
Long-term changes of synaptic strength in the central nervous system are mediated by an increase of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) following activation of excitatory neurotransmitter receptors. These phenomena, which represent a possible cellular basis for learning and memory processes in eukaryotes, are believed to be restricted to neurons. Here(More)
The substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord (lamina II) is the major site of integration for nociceptive information. Activation of NMDA glutamate receptor, production of nitric oxide (NO), and enhanced release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from primary afferents are key events in pain perception and central hyperexcitability.(More)
Activation of nuclear transcription factors, breakdown of nuclear envelope and apoptosis represent a group of nuclear events thought to be modulated by changes in nucleoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]n. Direct evidence for, or against, this possibility has been, however, difficult to obtain because measurements of [Ca2+]n are hampered by major technical(More)
A quasi-empirical approach to the simulation of fractograms was examined to verify that the elution behavior of emulsions in power-based field programmed sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) is consistent and predictable. The approach was applied to Intralipid, a commercial soybean emulsion and to an investigational medium chain triglyceride(More)
Cellular calcium handling was examined in brain slices from transgenic antisense mice with a regional deficiency in the neuronal calcium binding protein calbindin D28k and from their non transgenic wild type litter mate controls. Depolarization of brain slices with NMDA or potassium produced a prolonged elevation of neuronal calcium signal in neurons in(More)