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To clarify the role of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, we explored some effects of PJ34, a highly specific inhibitor of this enzyme, in hypoxic-reoxygenated (HR) H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Compared to the control, HR cells showed signs of oxidative stress, marked PARP-1 activation, NAD(+) and ATP depletion and(More)
In this study we explored the effects of curcumin in cardiac cells subjected to a protocol simulating ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Curcumin (10 microM) was administered before ischemia (pretreatment) or at the moment of reperfusion (posttreatment) and its effects were compared to those produced by a reference antioxidant (Trolox) with an equal antioxidant(More)
Typhoid fever remains a major health problem in developing countries. Young children are at high risk, and a vaccine effective for this age group is urgently needed. Purified capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Vi) is licensed as a vaccine, providing 50 to 70% protection in individuals older than 5 years. However, this vaccine is(More)
The surface lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria is both a virulence factor and a B cell antigen. Antibodies against O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide may confer protection against infection, and O-antigen conjugates have been designed against multiple pathogens. Here, we describe a simplified methodology for extraction and purification of the(More)
Nontyphoidal Salmonella are a major and emerging cause of fatal invasive disease in Africa, and are genetically distinct from those found elsewhere in the world. Understanding the targets of protective immunity to these African Salmonellae is key to vaccine development. We immunized mice and rabbits with heat-inactivated wild-type African invasive(More)
Nontyphoidal salmonellae, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, are a major cause of invasive disease in Africa, affecting mainly young children and HIV-infected individuals. Glycoconjugate vaccines provide a safe and reliable strategy against invasive polysaccharide-encapsulated pathogens, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a target of(More)
Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, are a major cause of invasive bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa with no vaccine currently available. Conjugation of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen to a carrier protein constitutes a promising vaccination strategy. Here we describe a rational process to select the most(More)
Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both(More)
INTRODUCTION Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever with over 22 million cases and over 200,000 deaths reported annually. A vaccine is much needed for use in young children and the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health (NVGH) is developing a conjugate vaccine which targets S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide. (More)
Salmonella Typhimurium is major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Africa. Conjugation of S. Typhimurium O-antigen to an appropriate carrier protein constitutes a possible strategy for the development of a vaccine against this disease, for which no vaccines are currently available. The conjugation chemistry used is one of the parameters(More)