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T helper cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17 (Th17 cells) play a crucial role in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). Th17 differentiation, which is induced by a combination of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/IL-6 or IL-21, requires expression of the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR gamma(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms by which they control disease remain to be determined. This study demonstrates that expression of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) by DCs is required for EAE induction. CCR4(-/-) mice presented enhanced resistance to EAE associated(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivities in the detection of inflammatory lesions in patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. MR imaging of 40 patients at both field strengths was performed in separate sessions including contiguous axial slices of T2 turbo spin-echo (T2 TSE),(More)
There is emerging evidence that the commensal microbiota has a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the CNS. Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS. While there were no major differences in the overall microbial profiles, we found a significant increase(More)
Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD52, a broadly expressed cell surface molecule on immune cells. Application results in a rapid and long-lasting removal of lymphocyte populations from the circulation. Alemtuzumab-treatment of MS patients with relapsing-remitting forms of the disease significantly reduced the risk of relapse and(More)
There is an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in human diabetes mellitus. We therefore examined the influence of hyperglycaemia and glucose-lowering treatment on nephrocarcinogenesis in rats. Rats (n = 850), which were either spontaneously diabetic, streptozotocin-diabetic or normoglycaemic, were examined with special reference to Armanni–Ebstein(More)
The thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) is a strong direct hepatocyte mitogen in vivo. The effects of T3 resemble those of peroxisome proliferators, which are known to induce hepatocellular tumors in rats. With the aim of studying long-term local effects of thyroid hormones on liver parenchyma, small pieces of thyroid tissue were transplanted(More)
The aims of this study were to determine and compare the sensitivity of T2 turbo spin-echo (T2 TSE) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0 T in the detection of inflammatory lesions in patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Forty-nine patients were examined with a 3.0 T MRI system using 5 mm(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of dimethyl fumarate (DMF; Tecfidera, Biogen, Weston, MA) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Peripheral lymphocyte subsets, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory cells and T helper (TH) cells TH1, TH2, TH17, and peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg) subpopulations were(More)