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BACKGROUND Genetic, phenotypic and ecological divergence within a lineage is the result of past and ongoing evolutionary processes, which lead ultimately to diversification and speciation. Integrative analyses allow linking diversification to geological, climatic, and ecological events, and thus disentangling the relative importance of different(More)
Abstract Carotenoids typically need reflective background components to shine. Such components, iridophores, leucophores, and keratin- and collagen-derived structures, are generally assumed to show no or little environmental variability. Here, we investigate the origin of environmentally induced variation in the carotenoid-based ventral coloration of male(More)
Switzerland Summary 1. The importance of dietary lipids for carotenoid-based ornaments has rarely been investigated, although theory predicts that dietary lipids may control the development of these widespread animal signals. Dietary lipids have been suggested to enhance the expression of male carotenoid-based ornaments because they provide carotenoids with(More)
Rock-paper-scissors (RPS) dynamics, which maintain genetic polymorphisms over time through negative frequency-dependent (FD) selection, can evolve in short-lived species with no generational overlap, where they produce rapid morph frequency cycles. However, most species have overlapping generations and thus, rapid RPS dynamics are thought to require(More)
Under chronic stress, carotenoid-based colouration has often been shown to fade. However, the ecological and physiological mechanisms that govern colouration still remain largely unknown. Colour changes may be directly induced by the stressor (for example through reduced carotenoid intake) or due to the activation of the physiological stress response (PSR,(More)
Genetic polymorphism can be maintained over time by negative frequency-dependent (FD) selection induced by Rock-paper-scissors (RPS) social systems. RPS games produce cyclic dynamics, and have been suggested to exist in lizards, insects, isopods, plants, and bacteria. Sexual selection is predicted to accentuate the survival of the future progeny during(More)
Ornamental colours usually evolve as honest signals of quality, which is supported by the fact that they frequently depend on individual condition. It has generally been suggested that some, but not all types of ornamental colours are condition dependent, indicating that different evolutionary mechanisms underlie the evolution of multiple types of(More)
Variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene result in abrupt, naturally selected colour morphs. These genetic variants may differentially affect sexual dimorphism if one morph is naturally selected in the two sexes but another morph is naturally or sexually selected only in one of the two sexes (e.g. to confer camouflage in reproductive females or(More)
422 question: consequences of Type III error for public health research. Am. J. Public Health 89:1175–1180. SEIGEL, R. A., R. B. SMITH, AND N. A. SEIGEL. 2003. Swine flu or 1918 pandemic? Upper respiratory tract disease and the sudden mortality of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polphemus) on a protected habitat in Florida. J. Herpetol. 37:137–144.(More)
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene influences coloration by altering the expression of genes acting downstream in the melanin synthesis. MC1R belongs to the melanocortin system, a genetic network coding for the ligands that regulate MC1R and other melanocortin receptors controlling different physiological and behavioural traits. The impact of MC1R(More)