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Stress is a major factor that promotes tobacco use and relapse during withdrawal. Although women are more vulnerable to tobacco use than men, the manner in which stress contributes to tobacco use in women versus men is unclear. Thus, the goal of this study was to compare behavioral and biological indices of stress in male and female rats during nicotine(More)
It is presently unclear whether diabetic rats experience greater rewarding effects of nicotine and/or negative affective states produced by nicotine withdrawal. The present study utilized a rodent model of diabetes to examine the rewarding effects of nicotine and negative affective states and physical signs produced by withdrawal. Separate groups of rats(More)
Adolescence is a unique period of development characterized by enhanced tobacco use and long-term vulnerability to neurochemical changes produced by adolescent nicotine exposure. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to developmental differences in tobacco use, this study compared changes in cholinergic transmission during(More)
This study examined the effect of emotion on opiate withdrawal induced hyperalgesia to determine whether emotional states modulate the magnitude of hyperalgesia. One hundred Hispanic men were recruited into one of three groups: heroin withdrawal, long-term heroin abstinence, and control. Participants were presented with pictures to induce neutral, positive,(More)
INTRODUCTION Previous work led to our hypothesis that sex differences produced by nicotine withdrawal are modulated by stress and dopamine systems in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). We investigated our hypothesis by studying intact females to determine whether the mechanisms that promote withdrawal are ovarian-hormone mediated. METHODS Female rats were(More)
Recent research indicates that glial cells control complex functions within the nervous system. For example, it has been shown that glial cells contribute to the development of pathological pain, the process of long-term potentiation, and the formation of memories. These data suggest that glial cell activation exerts both adaptive and pathological effects(More)
We investigated the prevalence of "high" levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a(More)
There is increasing evidence that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have various specific developmental roles in brain development. Nevertheless, specific effects of AChE inhibition during early brain development have not been adequately described. Therefore, methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF), an irreversible AChE inhibitor that shows high selectivity for the(More)
Smoking to control body weight is an obstacle to smoking cessation, particularly in western cultures where diets are often rich in calories derived from fat sources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous nicotine administration on meal patterns in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male rats were housed in cages designed to(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection is a well-characterized model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous research has shown that chronic restraint stress (RS) during early TMEV infection exacerbates behavioral signs of the disease. The present data suggest that RS-induced increases in CNS inflammation, demyelination, and axonal(More)
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