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In rat adipocytes, insulin provoked rapid increases in (a) endogenous immunoprecipitable combined protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta/lambda activity in plasma membranes and microsomes and (b) immunoreactive PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda in GLUT4 vesicles. Activity and autophosphorylation of immunoprecipitable epitope-tagged PKC-zeta and PKC-lambda were also increased by(More)
When performing a Tate pairing (or a derivative thereof) on an ordinary pairing-friendly elliptic curve, the computation can be looked at as having two stages, the Miller loop and the so-called final exponentiation. As a result of good progress being made to reduce the Miller loop component of the algorithm (particularly with the discovery of " truncated(More)
To search for enhancers and/or inhibitors of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, a salmonid rhabdovirus) infectivity, a total of 51 peptides from a pepscan of viral envelope protein G, a recombinant peptide from protein G (frg11) and 80 peptide mixtures from an alpha-helix-favoured combinatorial library were screened. However, contrary to what(More)
The requirement of a low-pH step during poliovirus entry was investigated by using the macrolide antibiotic bafilomycin A1, which is a powerful and selective inhibitor of the vacuolar proton-ATPases. Thus, viruses such as Semliki Forest virus and vesicular stomatitis virus that enter cells through endosomes and need their acidification, are potently(More)
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by acidification of endosomes by the action of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Fusion of the viral and the endosomal membrane delivers the viral genome to the cytoplasm. Direct blockade of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase by the selective inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BFLA1) prevented the(More)
Antibody linear epitopes of the glycoprotein G (gpG) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus of salmonids, were mapped by pepscan using overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the entire gpG sequence and ELISA with polyclonal and monoclonal murine and polyclonal trout antibodies. Among the regions recognized in the pepscan by the(More)
The inhibition of viral hemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus (VHSV) in vitro infection by pHs of <7 (low pH) has been previously reported. Nevertheless, the details of the mechanism underlying this effect remain obscure. We present evidence showing that low-pH inhibition occurs during a viral postadsorption step. Thus, while VHSV bound, replicated within(More)
Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the(More)
Brefeldin A (BFA) is a macrolide antibiotic that has multiple targets in vesicular transport and blocks membrane traffic between the cis- and trans-Golgi compartments, leading to the disruption of the trans-Golgi apparatus (for a review see Pelham, 1991, Cell 67, 449-451). Consequently, BFA interferes with the maturation of viral glycoproteins and(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the components of the non-specific immune system that operate first lines of protection in many animal species including fish. They exert broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, apart from many other potential roles in innate immunity, and represent a promising class of antiviral agents. Recent advances in(More)