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A variant of Archaeoglobus fulgidus VC-16 was isolated from cultures obtained after a stepwise transfer from media containing 1.8-6.3% NaCl by a plating-independent, selected-cell cultivation technique, using a laser microscope. This variant, A. fulgidus VC-16S, had a higher growth rate throughout the salt range of the parental strain, but was also able to(More)
The accumulation of compatible solutes was studied in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus as a function of the temperature and the NaCl concentration of the growth medium. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of cell extracts revealed the presence of alpha- and beta-glutamate, di-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol phosphate, di-myo-inositol phosphate,(More)
Functional metagenomic screening strategies, which are independent of known sequence information, can lead to the identification of truly novel genes and enzymes. Since E. coli has been used exhaustively for this purpose as a host, it is important to establish alternative expression hosts and to use them for functional metagenomic screening for new enzymes.(More)
The protective effects of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) on unrelated infections are thought to be mediated by long-term metabolic changes and chromatin remodeling through histone modifications in innate immune cells such as monocytes, a process termed trained immunity. Here, we show that BCG induction of trained immunity in(More)
The pathway for the synthesis of the organic solute glucosylglycerate (GG) is proposed based on the activities of the recombinant glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase (GpgS) and glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase (GpgP) from Methanococcoides burtonii. A mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase gene homologue (mpgP) was found in the genome of M. burtonii(More)
Halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms adapted to thrive in hot environments accumulate compatible solutes that usually have a negative charge either associated with a carboxylic group or a phosphodiester unit. Mannosylglycerate (MG) has been detected in several members of (hyper)thermophilic bacteria and archaea, in which it responds primarily to(More)
The archaeon Pyrolobus fumarii, one of the most extreme members of hyperthermophiles known thus far, is able to grow at temperatures up to 113°C. Over a decade after the description of this organism our knowledge about the structures and strategies underlying its remarkable thermal resistance remains incipient. The accumulation of a restricted number of(More)
The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is a product of colonic fermentation of dietary fibers. It is the main source of energy for normal colonocytes, but cannot be metabolized by most tumor cells. Butyrate also functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to control cell proliferation and apoptosis. In consequence, butyrate and its derived drugs(More)
The synthesis of di-myo-inositol phosphate (DIP), a common compatible solute in hyperthermophiles, involves the consecutive actions of inositol-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (IPCT) and di-myo-inositol phosphate phosphate synthase (DIPPS). In most cases, both activities are present in a single gene product, but separate genes are also found in a few(More)
The accumulation of organic solutes was investigated in the thermophilic bacteria Persephonella marina and Marinitoga piezophila, two representatives of the deepest lineages in the domain Bacteria. These organisms grow optimally at around 70 °C in medium containing 3 % NaCl. A new disaccharide, accumulating in Persephonella marina, was identified as(More)