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Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansions in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. Although early energy metabolic alterations in HD are likely to contribute to later neurodegenerative processes, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these metabolic alterations are not well characterized. Using the BACHD(More)
Lactate is shuttled between and inside cells, playing metabolic and signaling roles in healthy tissues. Lactate is also a harbinger of altered metabolism and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, neurodegeneration and cancer. Many tumor cells show high rates of lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as(More)
The cytotoxic effect of microcin E492, a low-molecular-mass channel-forming bacteriocin (7,887 Da) produced by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, was characterized in HeLa cells. At low (5 microg/ml) and intermediate (10 microg/ml) concentrations, microcin E492 induced biochemical and morphological changes typical of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, DNA(More)
Glutamate stimulates glycolysis in astrocytes, a phenomenon that couples astrocytic metabolism with neuronal activity. However, it is not known whether glutamate also affects glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), the transporter responsible for glucose entry into astrocytes. To address this question, two different real-time single-cell hexose uptake assays were(More)
In recent years, the use of fluorescent glucose analogs has allowed the study of rapid transport modulation in heterogeneous cell cultures and complex tissues. However, the kinetic behavior of these tracers is not conventional. For instance, the fluorescent glucose analog 6-NBDG permeates the cell 50-100 times slower than glucose but the uptake of 6-NBDG is(More)
Knowing how different cell types handle glucose should help to decipher how energy supply is adjusted to energy demand in the brain. Previously, the uptake of glucose by cultured brain cells was studied in real-time using fluorescent tracers and confocal microscopy. Here, we have adapted this technique to acute slices prepared from the rat cerebellum by(More)
Neuronal activity is accompanied by a rapid increase in interstitial lactate, which is hypothesized to serve as a fuel for neurons and a signal for local vasodilation. Using FRET microscopy, we report here that the rate of glycolysis in cultured mice astrocytes can be acutely modulated by physiological changes in extracellular lactate. Glycolytic inhibition(More)
Glutamate triggers an acute stimulation of the glucose transporter GLUT1 in cultured astrocytes, a phenomenon thought to facilitate energy delivery to active areas in the brain. Here we have explored the cell signaling mechanisms involved in this response. Half-stimulation of GLUT1 occurred at low micromolar glutamate, thus within the physiological range(More)
This study assessed the relative contributions of host genetics and diet in shaping the gut microbiota of rainbow trout. Full sibling fish from four unrelated families, each consisting of individuals derived from the mating of one male and one female belonging to a breeding program, were fed diets containing either vegetable proteins or vegetable oils for(More)
Brain tissue is highly dynamic in terms of electrical activity and energy demand. Relevant energy metabolites have turnover times ranging from milliseconds to seconds and are rapidly exchanged between cells and within cells. Until recently these fast metabolic events were inaccessible, because standard isotopic techniques require use of populations of cells(More)