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Whether a lethally injured mammalian cell undergoes necrosis or apoptosis may be determined by the early activation of specific ion channels at the cell surface. Apoptosis requires K+ and Cl- efflux, which leads to cell shrinking, an active phenomenon termed apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). In contrast, necrosis has been shown to require Na+ influx through(More)
The cytotoxic effect of microcin E492, a low-molecular-mass channel-forming bacteriocin (7,887 Da) produced by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, was characterized in HeLa cells. At low (5 microg/ml) and intermediate (10 microg/ml) concentrations, microcin E492 induced biochemical and morphological changes typical of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, DNA(More)
The main source of energy for the mammalian brain is glucose, and the main sink of energy in the mammalian brain is the neuron, so the conventional view of brain energy metabolism is that glucose is consumed preferentially in neurons. But between glucose and the production of energy are several steps that do not necessarily take place in the same cell. An(More)
Lactate is shuttled between and inside cells, playing metabolic and signaling roles in healthy tissues. Lactate is also a harbinger of altered metabolism and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, neurodegeneration and cancer. Many tumor cells show high rates of lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as(More)
While glucose is constantly being "pulled" into the brain by hexokinase, its flux across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is allowed by facilitative carriers of the GLUT family. Starting from the microscopic properties of GLUT carriers, and within the constraints imposed by the available experimental data, chiefly NMR spectroscopy, we have generated a(More)
Polyclonal antibodies raised against the human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter were used to investigate the distribution of the nucleoside transporters in the placenta. Immunoblots of brush-border membranes isolated from the human syncytiotrophoblast revealed a cross-reactive species that co-migrated with the erythrocyte nucleoside transporter as a broad(More)
  • L F Barros
  • 1999
A fluorometric method that allows repeatable measurement of sugar transport rates and parameters in single living cells is presented. Intracellular sugar concentrations were estimated in real time from changes in cell volume that occur secondary to permeation of sugars across the plasma membrane. In turn, the cell volume changes were estimated from(More)
Glutamate stimulates glycolysis in astrocytes, a phenomenon that couples astrocytic metabolism with neuronal activity. However, it is not known whether glutamate also affects glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), the transporter responsible for glucose entry into astrocytes. To address this question, two different real-time single-cell hexose uptake assays were(More)
High-resolution molecular and imaging techniques are shedding light on the mechanisms and functional significance of the transient rise in tissue lactate that accompanies synaptic activity. Despite high energy needs, neurons have a truncated glycolytic pathway that favors antioxidation over energy production, whereas astrocytes team up with oligodendrocytes(More)
Although it is known that brain activity is fueled by glucose, the identity of the cell type that preferentially metabolizes the sugar remains elusive. To address this question, glucose uptake was studied simultaneously in cultured hippocampal neurons and neighboring astrocytes using a real-time assay based on confocal epifluorescence microscopy and(More)