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The main source of energy for the mammalian brain is glucose, and the main sink of energy in the mammalian brain is the neuron, so the conventional view of brain energy metabolism is that glucose is consumed preferentially in neurons. But between glucose and the production of energy are several steps that do not necessarily take place in the same cell. An(More)
High-resolution molecular and imaging techniques are shedding light on the mechanisms and functional significance of the transient rise in tissue lactate that accompanies synaptic activity. Despite high energy needs, neurons have a truncated glycolytic pathway that favors antioxidation over energy production, whereas astrocytes team up with oligodendrocytes(More)
Although it is known that brain activity is fueled by glucose, the identity of the cell type that preferentially metabolizes the sugar remains elusive. To address this question, glucose uptake was studied simultaneously in cultured hippocampal neurons and neighboring astrocytes using a real-time assay based on confocal epifluorescence microscopy and(More)
Glutamate stimulates glycolysis in astrocytes, a phenomenon that couples astrocytic metabolism with neuronal activity. However, it is not known whether glutamate also affects glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), the transporter responsible for glucose entry into astrocytes. To address this question, two different real-time single-cell hexose uptake assays were(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansions in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. Although early energy metabolic alterations in HD are likely to contribute to later neurodegenerative processes, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these metabolic alterations are not well characterized. Using the BACHD(More)
Synaptic activity is followed within seconds by a local surge in lactate concentration, a phenomenon that underlies functional magnetic resonance imaging and whose causal mechanisms are unclear, partly because of the limited spatiotemporal resolution of standard measurement techniques. Using a novel Förster resonance energy transfer-based method that allows(More)
The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs.(More)
Lactate is shuttled between and inside cells, playing metabolic and signaling roles in healthy tissues. Lactate is also a harbinger of altered metabolism and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, neurodegeneration and cancer. Many tumor cells show high rates of lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as(More)
The cytotoxic effect of microcin E492, a low-molecular-mass channel-forming bacteriocin (7,887 Da) produced by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, was characterized in HeLa cells. At low (5 microg/ml) and intermediate (10 microg/ml) concentrations, microcin E492 induced biochemical and morphological changes typical of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, DNA(More)
Excitatory synaptic transmission stimulates brain tissue glycolysis. This phenomenon is the signal detected in FDG-PET imaging and, through enhanced lactate production, is also thought to contribute to the fMRI signal. Using a method based on Förster resonance energy transfer in mouse astrocytes, we have recently observed that a small rise in extracellular(More)