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Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a disorder characterized by neuronal nodules, ectopically positioned along the lateral ventricles of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in either of two human genes, Filamin A (FLNA) or ADP-ribosylation factor guanine exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2), cause PH (Fox et al. in 'Mutations in filamin 1 prevent migration of cerebral(More)
Two phases may be recognized in the development of congenital hydrocephalus in the hyh mutant mouse. During embryonic life the detachment of the ventral ependyma is followed by a moderate hydrocephalus. During the first postnatal week the cerebral aqueduct becomes obliterated and a severe hydrocephalus develops. The aim of the present investigation was to(More)
In human spina bifida aperta (SBA), cerebral pathogenesis [hydrocephalus, Sylvius aqueduct (SA) stenosis and heterotopias] is poorly understood. In animal models, loss of ventricular lining (ependymal denudation) causes SA stenosis and hydrocephalus. We aimed to investigate whether ependymal denudation also takes place in human foetal SBA. Considering that(More)
Most cells of the developing mammalian brain derive from the ventricular (VZ) and the subventricular (SVZ) zones. The VZ is formed by the multipotent radial glia/neural stem cells (NSCs) while the SVZ harbors the rapidly proliferative neural precursor cells (NPCs). Evidence from human and animal models indicates that the common history of hydrocephalus and(More)
The hyh mouse carrying a point mutation in the gene encoding for soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein alpha (alpha-SNAP) develops inherited hydrocephalus. The investigation was designed to study: (i) the clinical evolution of hyh mice; (ii) factors other than the alpha-SNAP mutation that may influence the expression of(More)
A heterogeneous population of ependymal cells lines the brain ventricles. The evidence about the origin and birth dates of these cell populations is scarce. Furthermore, the possibility that mature ependymal cells are born (ependymogenesis) or self-renewed (ependymal proliferation) postnatally is controversial. The present study was designed to investigate(More)
Disruption/denudation of the ependymal lining has been associated with the pathogenesis of various human CNS disorders, including hydrocephalus, spina bifida aperta, and periventricular heterotopia. It has been traditionally considered that ependymal denudation is a consequence of mechanical forces such as ventricular enlargement. New evidence indicates(More)
Neural stem cells persist after embryonic development in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche and produce new neural cells during postnatal life; ependymal cells are a key component associated with this neurogenic niche. In the animal model of human hydrocephalus, the hyh mouse, the ependyma of the lateral ventricles is progressively lost during late(More)
Adult neurogenesis has been convincingly demonstrated in two regions of the mammalian brain: the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus, and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). SGZ newborn neurons are destined to the granular cell layer (GCL) of the DG, while new neurons from the SVZ neurons migrate(More)
Hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) is a recessive inheritable disease that arose spontaneously in a mouse strain. A missense mutation in the Napa gene that results in the substitution of a methionine for isoleucine at position 105 (M105I) of alphaSNAP has been detected in these animals. alphaSNAP is a ubiquitous protein that plays a key role in membrane(More)