Luis F. Gonzalez

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BACKGROUND In Tanzania, less than a third of HIV infected children estimated to be in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are receiving it. In this setting where other infections and malnutrition mimic signs and symptoms of AIDS, early diagnosis of HIV among HIV-exposed infants without specialized virologic testing can be a complex process. We aimed to(More)
BACKGROUND This work evaluates the role of subtype F human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) substitutions L89M and L90M in viral replication and resistance to PR inhibitors (PIs). METHODS Subtype B and F PR genes were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis, to create and reverse the methionine at positions 89 and 90. Viruses were(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B and C proteases were manipulated to contain 90M, 88D, or 89L, and their in vitro biological properties were studied. We showed that D30N has significantly more impact in subtype C than in subtype B counterparts, accounting for the reported low prevalence of this mutation in patients failing nelfinavir-based(More)
In order to characterize the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility of subtype C strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to protease inhibitors (PIs), a subtype B protease that originated from an infectious clone was modified through site-directed mutagenesis to include the amino acid residue signatures of subtype C viruses (I15V,(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C isolates belong to one of the most prevalent strains circulating worldwide and are responsible for the majority of new infections in the sub-Saharan region and other highly populated areas of the globe. In this work, the impact of drug-resistance mutations in the protease gene of subtype C viruses was analysed(More)
— Exploiting wind-energy is one possible way to extend flight duration for Unmanned Arial Vehicles. Wind-energy can also be used to minimise energy consumption for a planned path. In this paper, we consider uncertain time-varying wind fields and plan a path through them. A Gaussian distribution is used to determine uncertainty in the Time-varying wind(More)
The rapid scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings has overwhelmed many public health laboratory services already burdened with human resource shortages, an aging and inadequate infrastructure, and a lack of quality systems. There is, however, a growing appreciation of the opportunity to use HIV-related laboratory strengthening as(More)
OBJECTIVES Several drug resistance and secondary mutations have been described in HIV-1 viruses from patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we assessed the impact of the protease substitution T74S on the phenotype and on the replicative fitness in HIV-1 subtypes B and C. METHODS HIV-1 molecular clones carrying subtype B or C proteases(More)
Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and(More)
Exploiting wind-energy is one possible way to extend the flight duration of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Wind-energy can also be used to minimise energy consumption for a planned path. In this paper, we consider uncertain, time-varying wind fields and plan a path through them that exploits the energy the field provides. A Gaussian distribution is used to(More)