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The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of oral anabolic steroids on body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, anthropometric measures, respiratory muscle strength, and functional exercise capacity among subjects with COPD. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. SETTING Pulmonary rehabilitation program. PARTICIPANTS(More)
This study was designed to evaluate the variability of the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) in 20 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) and to determine possible relationships of this variability with other polysomnographic parameters. The subjects were recorded on four consecutive nights. The mean AHI values were not significantly(More)
All of the most widely-cited studies for the prediction of maximum exercise responses have utilized either volunteers or referred subjects. Therefore, selection bias, with overestimation of the reference values, is a likely consequence. In order to establish a set of predictive equations for the gas exchange, ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to(More)
RATIONALE Normoxic heliox (mixture of 79% He and 21% O(2)) may enhance exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It remains to be determined whether part of these beneficial effects could be ascribed to increased O(2) delivery (O(2)DEL) to locomotor muscles. OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of heliox on(More)
The cellular signalling pathways participating in physiological color change are reviewed, particularly in crustaceans, teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles. This review is an attempt to summarize what is known and to raise some hypotheses about basic questions still to be elucidated. The first picture that emerges from the literature is that the transduction(More)
The time to fatigue (t) in response to high-intensity constant-load exercise decreases hyperbolically with increasing power (W), at least in active and younger individuals [i.e. (W - thetaF)t = W', where thetaF is the critical power asymptote and W' is the curvature constant]. Little is known, however, about the combined effects of age and sedentarity on(More)
Biomarkers of exposure and effect of pollutants were analyzed in croakers Micropogonias furnieri (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) captured in winter and summer in a polluted and in a non-polluted site at the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil). Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities (exposure biomarkers) and lipid peroxidation (effect biomarker) were(More)
The role of cardiovascular and pulmonary limitation in performing maximal exercise is contrasted in patients with mitral valve disease (MVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ventilatory (VE) gas exchange (VO2 and VCO2) and heart rate (HR) responses to an incremental cycle ergometer exercise were measured in six patients with MVD, seven(More)
Static lung volume (LV) measurements have a number of clinical and research applications; however, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this as our main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old,(More)