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Autoantibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and nucleosomes represent a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the mechanisms involved in breaking the immunological tolerance against these poorly immunogenic nuclear components are not fully understood. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells with consecutive release of nuclear(More)
Phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid predominantly found in the inner leaflet of eukaryotic cellular membranes, plays important roles in many biological processes. During apoptosis, the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids of the plasma membrane gets lost and PS is translocated to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. There, PS acts as one major(More)
In the presence of sodium, uric acid from purine metabolism precipitates as monosodium urate (MSU) needles and forms renal calculi or causes gouty arthritis in kidneys and joints, respectively. The latter is characterized by red, hot, and swollen arthritic joints. Here we report the in vitro effect of MSU crystals on blood granulocytes and analyze their(More)
The induction of tumor cell death is a central goal of radiotherapy. Surprisingly, a recent study sheds new light on this process, and the results presented by Huang et al. strongly question the benefit of radiation-induced apopto-sis for the outcome of cancer radiotherapy. In their study, Huang and coworkers describe that induction of apoptosis by(More)
Alterations of cell death pathways, including apoptosis and the neutrophil specific kind of death called NETosis, can represent a potential source of autoantigens. Defects in the clearance of apoptotic cells may be responsible for the initiation of systemic autoimmunity in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).(More)
Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high(More)
Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) improves the integrity of healthy tissues and cells during treatment with cytotoxic drugs. An anticancer drug is bound to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), injected into the vascular supply of the tumor and directed into the tumor by means of an external magnetic field. In this study, we investigated the(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, formation of immune complexes (IC), and activation of complement that ultimately fuel acute and/or chronic inflammation. Accumulation in blood and tissues of post-apoptotic remnants is considered of etiological and pathological importance(More)
Crystals cause injury in numerous disorders, and induce inflammation via the NLRP3 inflammasome, however, it remains unclear how crystals induce cell death. Here we report that crystals of calcium oxalate, monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and cystine trigger caspase-independent cell death in five different cell types, which is blocked by(More)
Rheumatic autoimmune disorders are characterized by a sustained pro-inflammatory microenvironment associated with impaired function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and concomitant vascular defects. Guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) is a marker and intracellular regulator of the inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells(More)