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In vitro studies indicate a role for the LIM kinase family in the regulation of cofilin phosphorylation and actin dynamics. In addition, abnormal expression of LIMK-1 is associated with Williams syndrome, a mental disorder with profound deficits in visuospatial cognition. However, the in vivo function of this family of kinases remains elusive. Using LIMK-1(More)
The brains of Alzheimer's disease patients contain extracellular Abeta amyloid deposits (senile plaques). Although genetic evidence causally links Abeta deposition to the disease, the mechanism by which Abeta disrupts cortical function is unknown. Using triple immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions, we found that(More)
Recent experiments with amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide indicate that formation of toxic oligomers may be an important contribution to the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The toxicity of Abeta oligomers depends on their structure, which is governed by assembly dynamics. Due to limitations of current experimental techniques, a detailed knowledge of oligomer(More)
The cortex of the brain is organized into clear horizontal layers, laminae, which subserve much of the connectional anatomy of the brain. We hypothesize that there is also a vertical anatomical organization that might subserve local interactions of neuronal functional units, in accord with longstanding electrophysiological observations. We develop and apply(More)
Despite extensive deposition of putatively neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein in the brain, it has not been possible to demonstrate an association of Abeta deposits with neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and neuronal loss is minimal in transgenic mouse models of AD. Using triple immunostaining confocal microscopy and analyzing the images with(More)
Neurites that pass through amyloid-beta deposits in Alzheimer disease (AD) undergo 3 changes: they develop phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity; the density of SMI-32-positive dendrites diminishes; and they also develop a marked alteration in their geometric features, changing from being nearly straight to being quite curvy. The extent to which the latter 2(More)
Experimental findings suggest that oligomeric forms of the amyloid beta protein (Abeta) play a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, elucidating their structure and the mechanisms of their formation is critical for developing therapeutic agents. We use discrete molecular dynamics simulations and a four-bead protein model to study oligomerization of(More)
CLEC9A is a recently discovered C-type lectin receptor involved in sensing necrotic cells. In humans, this receptor is selectively expressed by BDCA3(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), which have been proposed to be the main human cross-presenting mDCs and may represent the human homologue of murine CD8(+) DCs. In mice, it was demonstrated that antigens(More)
We present a statistical density map method derived from condensed matter physics to quantify microcolumns, the fundamental computational unit of the cerebral cortex. This method provides measures for microcolumnar strength, width, spacing, length, and periodicity. We applied this method to Nissl-stained 30 microm thick frozen sections from areas 46, TE,(More)
We quantitatively analyzed, using laser scanning confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of individual senile plaques in Alzheimer disease. We carried out the quantitative analysis using statistical methods to gain insights about the processes that govern Abeta peptide deposition. Our results show that plaques are complex porous structures with(More)