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Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a promising source of cells for applications in regenerative medicine. Directed differentiation of PSCs into specialized cells such as spinal motoneurons or midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons has been achieved. However, the effective use of PSCs for cell therapy has lagged behind. Whereas mouse PSC-derived DA neurons have(More)
Correlated activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits plays a key role in the encoding of movement, associative learning and procedural memory. How correlated activity is assembled by striatal microcircuits is not understood. Calcium imaging of striatal neuronal populations, with single-cell resolution, reveals sporadic and asynchronous activity under(More)
The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors that results in degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the brain. We analyzed neural cells generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from PD patients and presymptomatic individuals carrying mutations in the PINK1(More)
Projection neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) convey basal ganglia (BG) processing to thalamocortical and brain stem circuits responsible for movement. Two models try to explain pathological BG performance during Parkinson disease (PD): the rate model, which posits an overexcitation of SNr neurons due to hyperactivity in the indirect pathway(More)
Neuronal synchronization in basal ganglia circuits plays a key role in the encoding of movement, procedural memory storage and habit formation. Striatal dopamine (DA) depletion during Parkinsonism causes abnormal synchronization in corticobasal ganglia loops resulting in motor dysfunction. However, the dynamics of the striatal microcircuit underlying(More)
Striatal cell assemblies are thought to encode network states related to associative learning, procedural memory, and the sequential organization of behavior. Cholinergic neurotransmission modulates memory processes in the striatum and other brain structures. This work asks if the activity of striatal microcircuits observed in living nervous tissue, with(More)
This work investigated if diverse properties could be ascribed to evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded on rat neostriatal neurons when field stimulation was delivered at two different locations: the globus pallidus (GP) and the neostriatum (NS). Previous work stated that stimulation in the GP could antidromically excite projection axons(More)
Although the functional properties of individual neurons in primary visual cortex have been studied intensely, little is known about how neuronal groups could encode changing visual stimuli using temporal activity patterns. To explore this, we used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of(More)
In recent years, there has been a great deal of progress toward understanding the role of the striatum and dopamine in action selection. The advent of new animal models and the development of optical techniques for imaging and stimulating select neuronal populations have provided the means by which identified synapses, cells, and circuits can be reliably(More)