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Estrogen controls key cellular functions of responsive cells including the ability to survive, replicate, communicate and adapt to the extracellular milieu. Changes in the expression of 8400 genes were monitored here by cDNA microarray analysis during the first 32 h of human breast cancer (BC) ZR-75.1 cell stimulation with a mitogenic dose of(More)
Transcriptional activation of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays a pivotal role in G(1)-phase progression, which is thereby controlled by multiple regulatory factors, including nuclear receptors (NRs). Appropriate CCND1 gene activity is essential for normal development and physiology of the mammary gland, where it is regulated by ovarian steroids through a(More)
Estrogens are direct mitogens for hormone-responsive human breast cancercells, where they promote cell cycle progression and induce transcriptional activation of "immediate early" and cyclin genes. Nongenomic signaling by estrogens, including rapid changes of mitogen-activated protein(MAP) kinase and other signal-transduction-cascades activity, has been(More)
Production of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages is enhanced upon activation by bacterial endotoxins and cytokines mainly via an increase of the intracellular content of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS). We have studied in detail the effect of several modulators of macrophage activity on steady state levels of i-NOS mRNA in the mouse(More)
Cyclin D1 is a target for positive regulation by estrogens in growth-responsive cells, in which it mediates their mitogenic effects. Amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) might thus represent a genetic lesion inducing hormone-independent growth of transformed cells. Indeed, cyclin D1 overexpression has been found in up to 50% of(More)
Cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) stimulate nitric oxide production in macrophages by inducing transcription of the gene coding for the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We have cloned the mouse iNOS gene promoter and analysed its structural features and its response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and Escherichia coli LPS(More)
Antiestrogens are widely used for breast cancer treatment, where they act primarily by inhibiting the mitogenic action of estrogens on tumor cells. The effects of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 on estrogen-regulated cell cycle phase-specific events were investigated here in synchronously cycling human breast cancer (HBC) cells. In early G(1)-arrested(More)
MCF-7 human breast cancer cells express functional estrogen receptor and grow in response to estrogen stimulation. G(1)-synchronized MCF-7 cells, made quiescent by exposure to the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Simvastatin in estrogen-free medium, readily resume cell cycle progression upon stimulation with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), even under conditions where(More)
Microarray-based gene expression profiling is well suited for parallel quantitative analysis of large numbers of RNAs, but its application to cancer biopsies, particularly formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, is limited by the poor quality of the RNA recovered. This represents a serious drawback, as FFPE tumor tissue banks are(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are transcription factors (TFs) that mediate estrogen signaling and define the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer (BC). The two receptors can be found co-expressed and play specific, often opposite, roles, with ERβ being able to modulate the effects of ERα on gene transcription and cell(More)