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PURPOSE To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel PKA-activating drug, can prevent diabetic-like changes in the rat retina through increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. METHODS For the cell culture studies, we used both human retinal endothelial cells (REC) and retinal Müller cells in either 5 mM (normal) or 25 mM(More)
Wnt signaling components have been shown to control key events in embryogenesis and to maintain tissue homeostasis in the adult. Nkd1/2 and Axin1/2 protein families are required for feedback regulation of Wnt signaling. The mechanisms by which Nkd1 and Nkd2 exhibit significant differences in signal transduction remain incompletely understood. Here we report(More)
Aging and its related diseases are severe issues in modern society. Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of aging and to find the ways to prevent age-related diseases. Identifying the compounds targeting aging-related signals is a challenging work because there are so many proteins and signals involved. Recently, alone with the(More)
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