Ludwig Kappos

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New evidence and consensus has led to further revision of the McDonald Criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The use of imaging for demonstration of dissemination of central nervous system lesions in space and time has been simplified, and in some circumstances dissemination in space and time can be established by a single scan. These revisions(More)
New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis integrating magnetic resonance image assessment with clinical and other paraclinical methods were introduced in 2001. The "McDonald Criteria" have been extensively assessed and used since 2001. New evidence and consensus now strengthen the role of these criteria in the multiple sclerosis diagnostic workup to(More)
BACKGROUND Oral fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, significantly improved relapse rates and end points measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as compared with either placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, in phase 2 and 3 studies of multiple sclerosis. METHODS In(More)
BACKGROUND Natalizumab is the first alpha4 integrin antagonist in a new class of selective adhesion-molecule inhibitors. We report the results of a two-year phase 3 trial of natalizumab in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. METHODS Of a total of 942 patients, 627 were randomly assigned to receive natalizumab (at a dose of 300 mg) and 315 to(More)
BACKGROUND Fingolimod (FTY720), a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes, showed clinical efficacy and improvement on imaging in a phase 2 study involving patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS In this 12-month, double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned 1292 patients with(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) testing several hundred thousand SNPs have been performed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other complex diseases. Typically, the number of markers in which the evidence for association exceeds the genome-wide significance threshold is very small, and markers that do not exceed this threshold are generally neglected.(More)
Fatigue symptoms are reported by a majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Reliable assessment, however, is a demanding issue as the symptoms are experienced subjectively and as objective assessment strategies are missing. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new tool, the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions(More)
BACKGROUND Fingolimod (FTY720) is a new oral immunomodulating agent under evaluation for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. METHODS We randomly assigned 281 patients to receive oral fingolimod, at a dose of 1.25 mg or 5.0 mg, or a placebo once daily, and we followed these patients for 6 months with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical(More)
BACKGROUND BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) was shown to have antiinflammatory and cytoprotective properties in preclinical experiments and to result in significant reductions in disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a phase 2, placebo-controlled study involving patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a(More)
BACKGROUND Fingolimod has shown reductions in clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of fingolimod in such patients. METHODS We did this placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study predominantly in the USA (101 of 117 centres). Using a computer-generated(More)