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BACKGROUND The new protease inhibitors are potent inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and in combination with other antiretroviral drugs they may be able to cause profound and sustained suppression of HIV replication. METHODS In this double-blind study, 97 HIV-infected patients who had received zidovudine treatment for at least 6 months(More)
Feeding experiments with diets containing Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat were conducted to clarify the pathogenesis of immunological effects of Fusarium toxins to porcine spleen cells. Contaminated diets were fed to 36 Landrace prepubertal gilts for 35 d. Concentrations (as-fed basis) of the indicator toxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON),(More)
Morphological features of the gill and opercular epithelia of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) have been compared in fish acclimated to either fresh water (FW) or hypersaline water (60‰ S) by scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy. In hyperosmoregulating, i.e., FW-acclimated, tilapia only those mitochondria-rich (MR) cells present on the filament(More)
Microscopic examination of 50 colon resection specimens from 46 patients with ulcerative colitis revealed 6 patients whose colons contained intranuclear inclusions characteristic for cytomegalovirus (CMV). All patients were male, 47 years of age or older, and all had marked severe and fulminating courses. Five of the 6 patients had toxic dilation of the(More)
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is a frequent cause of purulent infections in humans. As potentially important aspects of its pathogenicity, GAS was recently shown to aggregate, form intratissue microcolonies, and potentially participate in multispecies biofilms. In this study, we show that GAS in fact forms monospecies biofilms in(More)
Inhaled ultrafine titanium dioxide (UF-TiO2) particles cause pronounced pulmonary inflammation, in contrast to fine TiO2. Previous studies provide evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species by alveolar macrophages, after overloading with UF-TiO2 particles and cytotoxicity of UF-TiO2 in rat lung alveolar macrophages. UF-TiO2 also causes pulmonary(More)
Mitochondria are organelles of all nucleated cells, and variations in mtDNA sequence affect a wide spectrum of human diseases. However, animal models for mtDNA-associated diseases are rare, making it challenging to explore mechanisms underlying the contribution of mitochondria. Here, we identify a polymorphism in the mitochondrial genome, G-to-T at position(More)
Multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs)-induced apoptotic changes were studied in human lung epithelium cell line-A549. Non-cytotoxic doses of MWCNTs were identified using tetrazolium bromide salt (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Cells were exposed to MWCNTs (0.5-100 μg/ml) for 6-72 h. Internalization and characterization of CNTs was(More)
Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC; 6 mg/kg body weight, i.v.) induced acute interstitial pancreatitis in rats. The course of the pancreatitis was examined within 28 days by light and electron microscopy as well as by pathobiochemistry (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin in serum; tin concentration in biliopancreatic juice, tissue, and(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Generally, cells respond to oxidative stress with adaptive changes in gene expression aimed at preventing cellular damage and increasing their survival. However, the overall extent of these genetic changes remains poorly defined. This issue was, therefore, examined in the(More)