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The synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin (VAMP) has recently been implicated as one of the key proteins involved in exocytotic membrane fusion. It interacts with the synaptic membrane proteins syntaxin I and synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP)-25 to form a complex which precedes exocytosis [Söllner et al. (1993b) Cell, 75, 409-418]. Here we demonstrate(More)
Tetanus toxin inhibits neurotransmitter release by selectively blocking fusion of synaptic vesicles. Recently tetanus toxin was shown to proteolytically degrade synaptobrevin II (also named VAMP-2), a synaptic vesicle-specific protein, in vitro and in nerve terminals. As targets of tetanus toxin, synaptobrevins probably function in the exocytotic fusion of(More)
Tetanus toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic nerve endings. The mature toxin is composed of a heavy and a light chain that are linked via a disulfide bridge. After entry of tetanus toxin into the cytoplasm, the released light chain causes block of neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that(More)
Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Both proteins form a complex with synaptobrevin, an intrinsic membrane protein of SVs. This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion.(More)
Recent studies suggest that epithelial cells and neurons employ similar mechanisms to target proteins to the distinct subdomains of their polarized cell surface membranes. We have examined the sorting behavior of the neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-1 expressed by transfection in the polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney(More)
There is strong evidence to indicate that proteins of the synaptobrevin family play a key role in exocytosis. Synaptobrevin 1 and 2 are expressed at high concentration in brain where they are localized on synaptic vesicles. Cellubrevin, a very similar protein, has a widespread tissue distribution and in fibroblasts is localized on endosome-derived,(More)
Priming of large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) is a Ca(2+)-dependent step by which LDCVs enter a release-ready pool, involving the formation of the soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein (SNAP) receptor complex consisting of syntaxin, SNAP-25, and synaptobrevin. Using mice lacking both isoforms of the calcium-dependent activator(More)
Synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of synaptic vesicles that plays a key role in exocytosis, occurs in two closely related isoforms, synaptobrevin I and II. We have analyzed the axonal transport of both isoforms in sciatic nerve and spinal roots. When fast axonal transport was interrupted by crushing, the proteins accumulated continuously proximal to the(More)
The gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter of rat brain synaptic vesicles was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, and its activity was studied in response to artificially created membrane potentials or proton gradients. Changes of the membrane potential were monitored using the dyes oxonol VI and 3,3'-diisopropylthiodicarbocyanine iodide, and changes of the H+(More)
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