Ludwig Bartels

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All elementary steps of a chemical reaction have been successfully induced on individual molecules with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in a controlled step-by-step manner utilizing a variety of manipulation techniques. The reaction steps involve the separation of iodine from iodobenzene by using tunneling electrons, bringing together two resultant(More)
Nanoscale confinement of adsorbed CO molecules in an anthraquinone network on Cu(111) with a pore size of ≈4  nm arranges the CO molecules in a shell structure that coincides with the distribution of substrate confined electronic states. Molecules occupy the states approximately in the sequence of rising electron energy. Despite the sixfold symmetry of the(More)
Anthraquinone molecules self-assemble on a Cu(111) surface into a large two-dimensional honeycomb network (square root of 304 x square root of 304)R23 degrees with pore diameters of approximately 50 A. The spontaneous formation of a pattern containing pores roughly five times larger than the size of the constituent molecules is unprecedented. The network(More)
We report on the controlled lateral manipulations of adsorbed single diiodobenzene molecules on the Cu(111) surface with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip at 20 K. The molecular motions in this experiment are mainly induced by the attractive interaction between the tip and the molecule. Even though the leading manipulation mode is 'pulling', a(More)
We present data on the coverage and nearest-neighbor dependences of the diffusion of CO on Cu(111) by time-lapsed scanning tunneling microscope (STM) imaging. Most notable is a maximum in diffusivity of CO at a local coverage of one molecule per 20 substrate atoms and a repulsion between CO molecules upon approach closer than three adsites, which in(More)
Adsorbing anthracene on a Cu͑111͒ surface results in a wide range of complex and intriguing superstructures spanning a coverage range from 1 per 17 to 1 per 15 substrate atoms. In accompanying first-principles density-functional theory calculations we show the essential role of van der Waals interactions in estimating the variation in anthracene adsorption(More)
Femtosecond laser irradiation is used to excite adsorbed CO molecules on a Cu110 surface; the ensuing motion of individual molecules across the surface is characterized on a site-to-site basis by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. Adsorbate motion both along and perpendicular to the rows of the Cu110 surface occurs readily, in marked contrast to the(More)
Lithium niobate is the archetypical ferroelectric material and the substrate of choice for numerous applications including surface acoustic wave radio frequencies devices and integrated optics. It offers a unique combination of substantial piezoelectric and birefringent properties, yet its lack of optical activity and semiconducting transport hamper(More)
Surface tunneling microscopy offers a new way to obtain vibrational spectra of adsorbed molecules. The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) [1] in the 1980s has allowed researchers an unprecedentedly close look at individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. In this technique, electrons quantum-mechanically tunneling from an atomically sharp(More)