Ludwig Arens

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In a randomised, double-blind study, the effects of intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A (BtA) into the upper limb were compared with those of normal saline solution in 14 patients with cerebral palsy; their mean age was 9 years. Range of movement and function were assessed before injection and at 2 and 12 weeks after injection. BtA injection(More)
We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular(More)
OBJECT Selective dorsal rhizotomy is a neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, but its long-term functional efficacy is still unknown. The authors sought to address this issue by means of an objective, prospective study in which quantitative gait analysis was used. METHODS Eleven children with(More)
Fifty-one spastic children who had undergone selective posterior lumbar rhizotomy between 1981 and 1984 were re-examined to determine whether the gains achieved had persisted and to look at other aspects that had not previously been explored in detail. The reduction of tone was maintained in all cases, while motor function continued to improve in 42 cases.(More)
The outcome of 30 teenagers and young adults who have had selective posterior lumbosacral rhizotomy for cerebral palsy spasticity was analysed. This age group was selected because the full benefits of physiotherapy and maturation of the central nervous system would be likely to have accrued prior to rhizotomy and the post-operative function could be related(More)
Fifty-five children with cerebral palsy had multiple-level laminectomies for selective posterior rhizotomies for the relief of spasticity. They were followed up clinically and radiologically to assess their spinal stability and the possible development of post-laminectomy deformity of the spine. The majority of the deformities found were related to cerebral(More)
The importance of socio-economic conditions in the causation of postnatally-acquired cerebral palsy has not been stressed in previous studies. A comparative survey was undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa. Three ethnic groups were compared--white, coloured (mixed ancestry) and black. The percentage of postnatally-acquired cerebral palsy in these groups was(More)
Of 163 children who have undergone five-level lumbosacral laminectomies for selective posterior rhizotomy, 20% of those re-X-rayed post-operatively (19/99) have developed incidental isthmic spondylolysis or grade I spondylolisthesis. The majority of patients were ambulatory, active, spastic diplegics. There were five children with isthmic defects at L3-4,(More)
Due to growing expectations for quality and safety of food products and an increasing demand for more transparent food supply chains, pork production faces new challenges. In the course of this development, chain-wide communication has gained importance in agribusiness. Nonetheless , existing approaches focus primarily on information supply, whereas the use(More)