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The main problems found in designing drugs are those of optimizing the drug-target interaction and of avoiding the insurgence of resistance. We suggest a scheme for the design of inhibitors that can be used as leads for the development of a drug and that do not face either of these problems, and then apply it to the case of HIV-1-PR. It is based on the(More)
In the laboratory, IM7 has been found to have an unusual folding mechanism in which an "on-pathway" intermediate with nonnative interactions is formed. We show that this intermediate is a consequence of an unusual cluster of highly frustrated interactions in the native structure. This cluster is involved in the binding of IM7 to its target, Colicin E7.(More)
The analysis of evolutionary amino acid correlations has recently attracted a surge of renewed interest, also due to their successful use in de novo protein native structure prediction. However, many aspects of protein function, such as substrate binding and product release in enzymatic activity, can be fully understood only in terms of an equilibrium(More)
The Metropolis implementation of the Monte Carlo algorithm has been developed to study the equilibrium thermodynamics of many–body systems. Choosing small trial moves, the trajectories obtained applying this algorithm agree with those obtained by Langevin's dynamics. Applying this procedure to a simplified protein model, it is possible to show that setting(More)
Metamorphic proteins such as lymphotactin are a notable exception of the empirical principle that structured natural proteins possess a unique three-dimensional structure. In particular, the human chemokine lymphotactin protein exists in two distinct conformations (one monomeric and one dimeric) under physiological conditions. In this work, we use a(More)
Random heteropolymers do not display the typical equilibrium properties of globular proteins, but are the starting point to understand the physics of proteins and, in particular, to describe their non-native states. So far, they have been studied with mean-field models in the thermodynamic limit, or with computer simulations of very small chains on lattice.(More)
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are recognized therapeutic targets in cancer. We here describe insights underpinning the impact of mutations on FGFR1 and FGFR3 kinase activity and drug efficacy, using a combination of computational calculations and experimental approaches including cellular studies, X-ray crystallography and biophysical and(More)
Regulation of the c-Abl (ABL1) tyrosine kinase is important because of its role in cellular signaling, and its relevance in the leukemiogenic counterpart (BCR-ABL). Both auto-inhibition and full activation of c-Abl are regulated by the interaction of the catalytic domain with the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain. The mechanism by which this interaction enhances(More)
The presence of native contacts in the denatured state of many proteins suggests that elements of the biologically active structure of these molecules are formed during the initial stage of the folding process. The rapidity with which these events take place makes it difficult to study them in vitro, but, by the same token, suitable for studies in silico.(More)
Phosphorylation of the activation loop is a fundamental step in the activation of most protein kinases. In the case of the Src tyrosine kinase, a prototypical kinase due to its role in cancer and its historic importance, phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 in the activation loop is known to rigidify the structure and contribute to the switch from the inactive(More)