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The "band heterotopia" or "double cortex" is a brain anomaly that is presumed to result from a premature arrest of neuronal migration. Patients with this anomaly are reported to have a variable clinical course that has been, heretofore, unpredictable. The clinical records and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of 27 patients with band heterotopia were(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe a method for the measurement of the accuracy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement with the use of image fusion technologies. PATIENTS AND METHODS Ten consecutive patients suffering from movement disorders underwent DBS electrode placement. Postoperative MR images were fused with the pre-operative stereotactic CT. The(More)
We describe two brothers aged 8 and 10 affected by severe bilateral schizencephaly, carrying an identical point mutation of the homeobox gene EMX2. Both children had severe neurologic deficits and mental retardation, although they differed in the anatomic extent of the brain malformation and in the severity of the clinical picture. The present findings,(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to investigate the abnormalities of cortical lamination observed in temporal lobe specimens obtained during surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. Specifically, we aimed to 1) correlate high-field ex vivo MRI with histopathologic analysis and 2) evaluate the effect of tissue(More)
PURPOSE Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is among the most common malformations of cortical development, and affected patients are frequently characterized by focal drug-resistant epilepsy. Here we analyzed clinical, MRI, and electrophysiologic findings in 54 PNH patients to reevaluate the classification of PNH, relate the anatomic features to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggest that dysplastic neural tissue in malformations of cortical development may participate in task performance, and that functional organization can be altered beyond visible lesion boundaries. The aim of this work was to investigate cortical function in a heterogeneous(More)
Pleasurability of individual chords, known as sensory consonance, is widely regarded as physiologically determined and has been shown to be associated with differential activity in the auditory cortex and in several other regions. Here, we present results obtained contrasting isolated four-note chords classified as consonant or dissonant in tonal music.(More)
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare metabolic encephalopathy displaying a subcortical leukoencephalopathy on MRI. Diagnosis rests on detection of an abnormal accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in body fluids. The authors report on four patients who developed a malignant brain tumor during the course of the disease. This association points to a(More)
BACKGROUND Bilateral high frequency subthalamic stimulation has been reported to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. To analyze the results of this surgical procedure we critically reviewed 17 parkinsonian patients with advanced disease complicated by motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. METHODS Between(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging-positive temporal lobe atrophy with temporo-polar grey/white matter abnormalities (usually called 'blurring') has been frequently reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. The poor distinction of grey and white matter has been attributed to various causes, including developmental(More)