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OBJECTIVES The extent and possibilities of spread of the HIV epidemic are not fully understood in Pakistan. A survey was conducted among men, women and transgender populations selling sex in Rawalpindi (Punjab) and Abbottabad (North West Frontier Province) in order to inform evidence-based programme planning. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was performed(More)
BACKGROUND New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ≤500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. METHODS We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa, Zambia,(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the evidence of differences in the risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and health-related behaviours between migrant and non-migrant female sex workers (FSWs). METHODS Systematic review of published peer-reviewed articles that reported data on HIV, STIs or health-related harms among migrant compared with non-migrant(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore female and transvestite sex workers' perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. DESIGN Qualitative interview study. SETTING Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. PARTICIPANTS 31 female and transvestite sex workers. RESULTS Violence, including police violence, was reported as a(More)
BACKGROUND At global level, there are 37 million people infected with HIV and 115 million people with antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Little is known about the extent of HIV-HCV co-infection. We sought to characterise the epidemiology and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV. METHODS In this systematic review and meta-analysis we(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, a survey in Rawalpindi found the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in injecting drug users (IDUs) to be low (17%), despite widespread needle/syringe sharing. This analysis uses modelling to explore hypotheses for the low prevalence of HCV to project the future HIV/HCV epidemic and to estimate the impact of a generic intervention. (More)
Evidence suggests rapid diffusion of injecting drug use and associated outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. There remains a need for research among non-treatment and community-recruited samples of IDUs to better estimate the dynamics of HIV transmission and to improve treatment and health services(More)
Respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been used in several counties to sample injecting drug users, sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men and as a means of collecting behavioural and biological health data. We report on the use of RDS in three separate studies conducted among SWs between 2004 and 2005 in the Russian Federation, Serbia, and(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Russia. METHODS Unlinked anonymous cross-sectional survey of 1473 IDUs recruited from non-treatment settings in Moscow, Volgograd and Barnaul (Siberia), with oral fluid sample collection for HIV, HCV antibody (anti-HIV, anti-HCV) and(More)
OBJECTIVES Togliatti City is witness to a large epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with injecting drug use (IDU). GOAL This study sought to examine whether risk behaviors and risk factors associated with HIV differed across a sample IDUs by gender and sex work. STUDY A sample of IDU (n = 423) comprising female sex workers (SWs) (n(More)