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OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi)-both separately and in combination-on motor symptoms and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS Four patients with bilateral cZi and PPN DBS electrodes were rated with the Unified(More)
INTRODUCTION Axial symptoms including postural instability, falls and failure of gait initiation are some of the most disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in combination with the caudal zona incerta (cZi) in order to determine their efficacy in(More)
Even simple behaviour requires us to make decisions based on combining multiple pieces of learned and new information. Making such decisions requires both learning the optimal response to each given stimulus as well as combining probabilistic information from multiple stimuli before selecting a response. Computational theories of decision making predict(More)
INTRODUCTION Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can provide dramatic essential tremor (ET) relief, however no Class I evidence exists. MATERIALS AND METHODS Analysis methods: I) traditional cohort analysis; II) N-of-1 single patient randomised control trial and III) signal-to-noise (S/N) analysis. 20 DBS electrodes in ET patients were switched on and off for(More)
INTRODUCTION The Pedunculopontine nucleus is a novel target for deep brain stimulation and this may improve postural instability and gait dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. If unilateral Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is as efficacious as bilateral stimulation this would lead to less surgical risk. METHODS 5 Parkinson's disease patients with(More)
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