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Seventy-six healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) to investigate the effects of age on regional cerebral volumes and on the frequency and severity of cortical atrophy, lateral ventricular enlargement, and subcortical hyperintensity. Increasing age was associated with (1) decreasing volumes of the cerebral hemispheres (0.23% per year),(More)
Blood and endothelial cells arise in close association in developing embryos, possibly from a shared precursor, the hemangioblast, or as hemogenic endothelium. The transcription factor, Scl/Tal1 (stem cell leukemia protein), is essential for hematopoiesis but thought to be required only for remodeling of endothelium in mouse embryos. By contrast, it has(More)
Hypercortisolemia is a frequently observed abnormality in patients with major depression. It has been hypothesized that the hippocampus, as a major feedback site for glucocorticoids, is involved in the pathophysiology of hypercortisolemia. Some have in fact posited that the hippocampus is marked by diminished size in depressed patients with(More)
In many instances during development, morphogens specify cell fates by forming concentration gradients. In the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), functions as a long-range morphogen to control patterning and growth. Dpp is secreted from a stripe of cells at the anterior-posterior(More)
1. The present study was done to assess the brain metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in normal individuals. 2. Proton spectroscopy STEAM voxel technique with chemical shift imaging was used to provide localized metabolic information from the brains of 34 normal volunteers (15 males) between the ages of 21 and 75 years. 3.(More)
The relationship between dexamethasone suppression test (DST) results and in vivo pituitary volume was studied in 24 psychiatric inpatients. The principles of systematic stereology were used to measure pituitary volume from 3-mm contiguous sagittal spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. There was no correlation between pituitary volume and 3(More)
To determine prospectively whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) produces structural brain changes, 35 inpatients with depression underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and twice after (at 2 to 3 days and at 6 months) completion of a course of brief-pulse, bilateral ECT. The magnetic resonance images were analyzed blindly for evidence of changes in(More)
Proton localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy was studied in 20 social phobics and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode volume element localization was used with chemical shift imaging. Choline and creatine signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were significantly lower in social phobia than in controls in subcortical, thalamic, and(More)
High-field magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to study posterior fossa morphology in 27 patients with major depression and 36 normal control subjects. Depressed patients demonstrated smaller brain stem and cerebellar vermis than controls. These differences were highly significant for the anterior cerebellar vermis and medulla. There was also a(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate further the clinical utility of the interuncal distance (IUD) measured from axial MR scans as a reflection of hippocampal atrophy. METHODS The IUD measured from the axial MR scans of 17 healthy control subjects was correlated with the volume of the amygdala hippocampal complex obtained from coronal MR images. The IUD was also measured(More)