Learn More
The immunogenicities of candidate DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines were evaluated on their own and in a prime-boost regimen in phase I clinical trials in healthy uninfected individuals in the United Kingdom. Given the current lack of approaches capable of inducing broad HIV-neutralizing(More)
Virus diversity and escape from immune responses are the biggest challenges to the development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1. We hypothesized that T-cell vaccines targeting the most conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most variants and bear fitness costs when mutated, will generate effectors that efficiently recognize and(More)
A double-blind randomized phase I trial was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-negative subjects receiving vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 p24/p17 gag linked to a string of CD8(+) T-cell epitopes. The trial had two groups. One group received either two doses of MVA.HIVA (2x(More)
BACKGROUND Rare human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who maintain control of viremia without therapy show potent CD8+ T-cell-mediated suppression of viral replication in vitro. Whether this is a determinant of the rate of disease progression in viremic individuals is unknown. METHODS We measured CD8+ T-cell-mediated inhibition(More)
DNA- and modified virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored candidate vaccines expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade A-derived p24/p17 gag fused to a string of HLA class I epitopes, called HIVA, were tested in phase I trials in healthy, HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, United Kingdom. Eighteen volunteers were vaccinated with pTHr.HIVA DNA(More)
During chronic HIV-1 infection, continuing viral replication is associated with impaired proliferative capacity of virus-specific CD8+ T cells and with the expansion and persistence of oligoclonal T cell populations. TCR usage may significantly influence CD8+ T cell-mediated control of AIDS viruses; however, the potential to modulate the repertoire of(More)
All thymically selected T cells are inherently cross-reactive, yet many data indicate a fine specificity in antigen recognition, which enables virus escape from immune control by mutation in infections such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To address this paradox, we analyzed the fine specificity of T cells recognizing a human histocompatibility(More)
BACKGROUND One of the big roadblocks in development of HIV-1/AIDS vaccines is the enormous diversity of HIV-1, which could limit the value of any HIV-1 vaccine candidate currently under test. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS To address the HIV-1 variation, we designed a novel T cell immunogen, designated HIV(CONSV), by assembling the 14 most conserved regions of(More)
Affordable therapeutic strategies that induce sustained control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and are tailored to the developing world are urgently needed. Since CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells are crucial to HIV-1 control, stimulation of potent cellular responses by therapeutic vaccination might be exploited to reduce antiretroviral(More)
The incorporation of the fatty acids in fish and olive oil into the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease was examined during 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with the oils, and the influence on colonic mucosal prostaglandin and thromboxane generation was measured. With a dietary supplement of 18 g fish oil daily, concentrations of the(More)