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Kimberlite magmas have the deepest origin of all terrestrial magmas and are exclusively associated with cratons. During ascent, they travel through about 150 kilometres of cratonic mantle lithosphere and entrain seemingly prohibitive loads (more than 25 per cent by volume) of mantle-derived xenoliths and xenocrysts (including diamond). Kimberlite magmas… (More)
at <0.2). Such low water–rock ratios result in only small changes in stable isotope compositions; for example, δO 18 is predicted only to change slightly from mantle values. The model supports alteration of kimberlites predominantly by interactions with external non-magmatic fluids.
Volcanoes are increasingly recognized as agents and recorders of global climate variability, although deciphering the linkages between planetary climate and volcanism is still in its infancy. The growth and emergence of subaqueous volcanoes produce passage zones, which are stratigraphic surfaces marking major transitions in depositional environments. In… (More)