Lucio Guido Costa

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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a serum enzyme closely associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL). PON1 hydrolyzes several organophosphorus compounds used as insecticides, as well as nerve agents; it metabolizes toxic oxidized lipids associated with both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL; and it can hydrolyze a number of lactone-containing pharmaceutical(More)
This review examines the large body of toxicological and epidemiological information on human exposures to chlorpyrifos, with an emphasis on the controversial potential for chlorpyrifos to induce neurodevelopmental effects at low doses. The results of this review demonstrate that the use of urinary 3,5,6-trichlorpyridinol (TCPy), a metabolite of(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet and house dust appear to be the(More)
Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an esterase that is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in the plasma; it is involved in the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides such as parathion and chlorpyrifos. PON1 may also confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids present in oxidized low-density(More)
This study investigated the role of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in modulating the neurotoxicity of domoic acid (DomA), by using cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclm). Glutamate-cysteine ligase (Glc) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis.(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, are extensively diffused in the environment as shown by several studies on sentinel animal species, as well as humans. Of particular concern are the reported high levels of PBDEs in human milk, as almost no information is available on their potential effects on developing(More)
OBJECTIVES The Q192R polymorphism of paraoxonase (PON1) has been shown to affect hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds. The Q192 and R192 alloforms exhibit equivalent catalytic efficiencies of hydrolysis for diazoxon, the oxon form of the pesticide (DZ). However, the R192 alloform has a higher catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis than does the Q192(More)
Xestospongins (Xe's) A, C, D, araguspongine B, and demethylxestospongin B, a group of macrocyclic bis-1-oxaquinolizidines isolated from the Australian sponge, Xestospongia species, are shown to be potent blockers of IP3-mediated Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum vesicles of rabbit cerebellum. XeC blocks IP3-induced Ca2+ release (IC50 = 358 nM) without(More)
Organophosphates (OPs) are one of the main classes of insecticides, in use since the mid 1940s. OPs can exert significant adverse effects in non-target species including humans. Because of the phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase, they exert primarily a cholinergic toxicity, however, some can also cause a delayed polyneuropathy. Currently debated and(More)
Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a polymorphic, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated esterase that hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of several organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and nerve agents. The activity polymorphism is determined by a Gln/Arg (Q/R) substitution at position 192. Injection of purified PON1 protects animals from OP poisoning. In the(More)