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The complex role of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) in arterial pressure regulation has been well documented. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic low-dose angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion decreases arterial pressure in female rats via an AT(2)R-mediated mechanism. Estrogen can differentially regulate components of the RAS and is known to influence(More)
The mechanism of albuminuria is perhaps one of the most complex yet important questions in renal physiology today. Recent studies have directly demonstrated that the normal glomerulus filters substantial amounts of albumin and that charge selectivity plays little or no role in preventing this process. This filtered albumin is then processed by proximal(More)
Awareness of sex differences in the pathology of cardiovascular disease is increasing. Previously, we have shown a role for the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) in the sex differences in the arterial pressure response to Ang II. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) contributes in setting pressure-natriuresis properties, and its responsiveness is closely(More)
Sex differences exist in the regulation of arterial pressure and renal function by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This may in part stem from a differential balance in the pressor and depressor arms of the RAS. In males, the ACE/AngII/AT(1)R pathways are enhanced, whereas, in females, the balance is shifted towards the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/MasR and AT(2)R(More)
The renin-angiotensin system is a powerful regulator of arterial pressure and body fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R), which mediates the vasodilatory and natriuretic actions of angiotensin peptides, is enhanced in females and may, therefore, represent an innovative therapeutic target. We investigated(More)
Sexual dimorphism in arterial pressure regulation has been observed in humans and animal models. The mechanisms underlying this gender difference are not fully known. Previous studies in rats have shown that females excrete more salt than males at a similar arterial pressure. The renin-angiotensin system is a powerful regulator of arterial pressure and body(More)
Major sex differences exist in the development and progression of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Prior to menopause, women have lower arterial pressure and, furthermore, are protected from hypertension and cardiovascular disease relative to age-matched men. However, after menopause this cardiovascular protection in women is lost. These sex(More)
This study examines the existence of the urinary albumin degradation pathway and the proposed role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in this process using the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPK) model. Albumin-derived peptides in IPK urine are analyzed in terms of their relative size distribution using radioactivity and absorbance at 214 nm, and their(More)
Previously we have shown that ovariectomised (OVX) female sheep have reduced renal function and elevated blood pressure from 6 months of age following fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) at 100 days of gestation (term = 150 days). In the current study we examined if in intact female sheep the onset of decline in renal function and elevation in blood pressure was(More)