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CONTEXT Small single-center studies have shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may be useful to identify incipient Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but large-scale multicenter studies have not been conducted. OBJECTIVE To determine the diagnostic accuracy of CSF beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta42), total tau(More)
Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is difficult in early stages of disease, with high risk of misdiagnosis. The long preclinical phase of PD provides the possibility for early therapeutic intervention once disease-modifying therapies have been developed, but lack of biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression represents a(More)
Although alpha-synuclein is the main constituent of Lewy bodies, cerebrospinal fluid determination on its own does not seem fundamental for the diagnosis of synucleinopathies. We evaluated whether the combination of classical biomarkers, Aβ(1-42) , total tau, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein can improve discrimination of Parkinson's disease, dementia(More)
Homocysteine (Hcy) may represent a metabolic link in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases and old-age dementias. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, and is also associated with cerebrovascular disease; specifically, the risk of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis(More)
OBJECTIVE To better understand how to differentiate the "in vivo" normal aging brain from pathological conditions, namely dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), to show neuroanatomical, perfusional and(More)
Levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapy was investigated in 25 patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease (AD) and new-onset epileptic seizures in a prospective open-label study. At a daily dose of 1000-1500 mg, 72% were seizure-free for at least one year; 16% discontinued for untolerability; 8% were unresponsive; 4% were lost to follow-up. These results suggest(More)
BACKGROUND The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The Alzheimer's Association has initiated a global(More)
Levels of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) of both early (e-AD) and late (l-AD) onset assessed by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were higher than those found in controls or in patients with vascular dementia (VD). A negative correlation between(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies show that the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181P)), and amyloid-β (1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) have high diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease. Variability in concentrations for Aβ(1-42), T-tau, and P-tau(181P) drives the need for standardization. METHODS Key issues were(More)
BACKGROUND Total tau (T-tau) and beta-amyloid((1-42)) (Abeta(1-42)) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging or depressive pseudo-dementia. Differential diagnosis from dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in clinical settings is difficult. METHODS The analytical performance of the INNOTEST(More)