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Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is difficult in early stages of disease, with high risk of misdiagnosis. The long preclinical phase of PD provides the possibility for early therapeutic intervention once disease-modifying therapies have been developed, but lack of biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression represents a(More)
OBJECTIVE To better understand how to differentiate the "in vivo" normal aging brain from pathological conditions, namely dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), to show neuroanatomical, perfusional and(More)
Although alpha-synuclein is the main constituent of Lewy bodies, cerebrospinal fluid determination on its own does not seem fundamental for the diagnosis of synucleinopathies. We evaluated whether the combination of classical biomarkers, Aβ(1-42) , total tau, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein can improve discrimination of Parkinson's disease, dementia(More)
BACKGROUND Total tau (T-tau) and beta-amyloid((1-42)) (Abeta(1-42)) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging or depressive pseudo-dementia. Differential diagnosis from dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in clinical settings is difficult. METHODS The analytical performance of the INNOTEST(More)
BACKGROUND The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The Alzheimer's Association has initiated a global(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies show that the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181P)), and amyloid-β (1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) have high diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease. Variability in concentrations for Aβ(1-42), T-tau, and P-tau(181P) drives the need for standardization. METHODS Key issues were(More)
Tau and beta-amyloid (1-42) (Abeta42) are two independent markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, biochemical markers were validated as tools for differential diagnosis between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Tau, Abeta42 and phospho-tau (181P) were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from controls (n=40)(More)
OBJECTIVES Core CSF changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are decreased amyloid β(1-42), increased total tau, and increased phospho-tau, probably indicating amyloid plaque accumulation, axonal degeneration, and tangle pathology, respectively. These biomarkers identify AD already at the predementia stage, but their diagnostic performance might be affected by(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome. A correct prediction of MCI conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a primary goal in routine clinical practice. Since the presence of pathological levels in >or=2 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers; amyloid protein (Abeta42), total tau (h-tau) and phospho-tau (p-tau)(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau ratio decrease (33kDa/55kDa forms) and mid-saggital midbrain-to-pons (MP) atrophy have been suggested as diagnostic markers for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The usefulness of their combined evaluation has never been tested. We evaluated the CSF tau ratio and the MP atrophy as a combined marker for early identification(More)