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Caffeine is a commonly used neurostimulant that also produces cerebral vasoconstriction by antagonizing adenosine receptors. Chronic caffeine use results in an adaptation of the vascular adenosine receptor system presumably to compensate for the vasoconstrictive effects of caffeine. We investigated the effects of caffeine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in(More)
RATIONALE The field of research regarding the effects of habitual caffeine use is immense and frequently utilizes self-report measures of caffeine use. However, various self-report measures have different methodologies, and the accuracy of these different methods has not been compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS Self-reported caffeine use was estimated from(More)
Thirty-nine children between the ages of 5 to 8 years (N = 27) and 9 to 14 years (N = 12) who were undergoing cardiac surgery for repair of ventricular or atrial septal defect and 39 controls matched for age, educational level and social class were administered the age-appropriate Chinese versions of the Wechsler Intelligence scales and the Halstead Reitan(More)
Thirty surgical patients receiving surgery for congenital heart or rheumatic heart disease were compared with a match control group on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Subjects were examined prior to surgery, 4 weeks post- and again 6 months postsurgery. Preoperative surgical subjects showed a generalized impairment in functioning suggestive of brain(More)
The authors studied depressive symptoms among 251 Chinese medical inpatients through the use of the Beck Depression Inventory. Assessment of 100 healthy Chinese volunteers validated the use of American score norms for Chinese subjects. A total of 47.8% of the 251 medical inpatients (N = 120) met the Beck scale criterion for depression. Beck scale scores(More)
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