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Neonatal and adult rats (1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 weeks of age) were given five daily oral doses of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (0, 10, 100, 1000, 2000 mg/kg) and histological changes in the testes were examined 24 hr after the last dose. Relative testis weights were reduced at doses of 1000 mg/kg in 1, 2, 3, and 6-week-old but not in 12-week-old rats,(More)
Reproductive toxicity studies are increasingly including assessments of sperm parameters including motility, morphology, and counts. While these assessments can provide valuable information for the determination of potential reproductive toxicity, the methods for conducting the assessments have not been well developed in all laboratories and are continually(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, several genome-wide association studies have identified various genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Relatively little is known about the possible interactions between these loci and the established risk factors for breast cancer. METHODS To assess interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and established(More)
Five daily oral doses of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (2 g/kg) given to rats on Days 2-6, 6-10, or 14-18 of lactation caused significant decreases in body weight and increases in hepatic peroxisomal enzymes palmitoyl CoA oxidase and carnitine acetyltransferase in the dams and their suckling pups. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensing/signalling intracellular protein which is activated by an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio after ATP depletion. Once activated, AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and the Akt-mTOR pathway, and activates the p53-p21 axis. All these molecular mechanisms are thought to play a key role in breast(More)
The excretion of cimetidine and ranitidine into rat milk following single or multiple oral doses and the subsequent effects on their suckling pups and on milk composition and milk synthesis were investigated. Following a single dose of [3H]cimetidine, peak milk cimetidine concentrations were maintained from 1 until 4 hr, while plasma concentrations peaked(More)
The excretion of nickel into rat milk following subcutaneous (sc) doses of nickel chloride (NiCl2) and the effects on the lactating rat and her suckling pups were determined. Plasma and milk Ni concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner 4 hr after single doses of 0, 10, 50, or 100 mumol NiCl2/kg to lactating rats, giving milk/plasma Ni ratios of(More)
The developmental toxicity of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, was investigated in pregnant rats and rabbits given daily oral doses during organogenesis. Rats received 0, 10, 100, or 300 mg/kg on days 6-15 of gestation, and rabbits received 0, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal and(More)
The stereoselectivities of three biochemically distinct human glutathione transferases, the acidic isoenzyme (pi) purified from placenta and the basic (alpha-epsilon) and the near-neutral (mu) isoenzymes purified from liver, were determined with (+/-)-benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-oxide, pyrene-4,5-oxide, and (+/-)-styrene-7,8-oxide as substrates. Transferase mu was(More)
Fertility and reproduction studies were conducted in rats with the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin. Male rats received vehicle (0.5% methylcellulose) or atorvastatin at 20, 100, or 175 mg/kg by oral gavage for 11 weeks prior to mating with untreated females; treatment continued throughout mating and until(More)