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A series of 52 patients in whom 0.5% bupivacaine was used to produce spinal analgesia for awake Caesarean section is described. Analgesia tended to be asymmetrical and of limited extent until the patients were turned from the left lateral to the right lateral position immediately after injecting the spinal solution. This movement produced a more symmetrical(More)
Adaptive immune responses are initiated when T cells encounter antigen on dendritic cells (DC) in T zones of secondary lymphoid organs. T zones contain a 3-dimensional scaffold of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) but currently it is unclear how FRC influence T cell activation. Here we report that FRC lines and ex vivo FRC inhibit T cell proliferation but(More)
An in vitro model was used to determine the force required to pierce bovine dura with a range of new spinal needles and to measure the subsequent leakage rate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A significantly greater force was required to pierce the dura with pencil-point style needles compared to Quincke needles of the same size. Quincke needles caused a(More)
An epigastric impedance technique was used to measure gastric emptying in nonpregnant women, women in the third trimester of pregnancy, and women within 60 min of delivery. The basis of the technique is the increase in epigastric impedance after the ingestion of a nonionic fluid. The subsequent decline in impedance is used as a measure of gastric emptying.(More)
During chronic infection, pathogen-specific CD8(+) T cells upregulate expression of molecules such as the inhibitory surface receptor PD-1, have diminished cytokine production and are thought to undergo terminal differentiation into exhausted cells. Here we found that T cells with memory-like properties were generated during chronic infection. After(More)
The incidence of instrumental delivery and malposition immediately before delivery was compared in patients who were given lumbar epidural analgesia and those who were not. Instrumental delivery was five times more common and a malposition of the fetal head was more than three times as common in the epidural group as in women who did not receive regional(More)
Maternal plasma levels of cortisol were measured serially by radioimmunoassay in two groups of 12 patients during induced labour and in the puerperium. One group was given continuous extradural analgesia throughout labour, the other group received pethidine and promazine in response to pain. Pre-induction cortisol levels were significantly higher in(More)
Central and peripheral tolerance prevent autoimmunity by deleting the most aggressive CD8(+) T cells but they spare cells that react weakly to tissue-restricted antigen (TRA). To reveal the functional characteristics of these spared cells, we generated a transgenic mouse expressing the TCR of a TRA-specific T cell that had escaped negative selection.(More)