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Hypothalamus is a site of integration of the hypoxic and thermal stimuli on breathing and there is evidence that serotonin (5-HT) receptors in the anteroventral preoptic region (AVPO) mediate hypoxic hypothermia. Once 5-HT is involved in the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), we investigated the participation of the 5-HT receptors (5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT7)(More)
Estivation is accompanied by a reduction of oxygen consumption in amphibians during drought. We tested the hypothesis that, during the dry season, the toad Bufo paracnemis selects a lower preferred body temperature (T(b)), and would be less sensitive to hypoxia, than during its active period. Therefore, during winter (dry season in São Paulo state, Brazil)(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in central chemoreception. In young rats (P9 or younger), 85% of LC neurons increase firing rate in response to hypercapnia vs. only about 45% of neurons from rats P10 or older. Carbenoxolone (CARB - gap junction blocker) does not affect the % of LC neurons responding in young rats but it decreases the %(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a noradrenergic nucleus that plays an important role in the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. This nucleus is densely innervated by serotonergic fibers and contains high density of serotonin (5-HT) receptors, including 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2). We assessed the possible modulation of respiratory response to hypercapnia by 5-HT,(More)
The sensing of blood gas tensions and/or pH is an evolutionarily conserved, homeostatic mechanism, observable in almost all species studied from invertebrates to man. In vertebrates, a shift from the peripheral O(2)-oriented sensing in fish, to the central CO(2)/pH sensing in most tetrapods reflects the specific behavioral requirements of these two groups(More)
AIM Central chemoreceptors are important to detect changes of CO2/H(+), and the Locus coeruleus (LC) is one of the many putative central chemoreceptor sites. Here, we studied the contribution of LC glutamatergic receptors on ventilatory, cardiovascular and thermal responses to hypercapnia. METHODS To this end, we determined pulmonary ventilation (V(E)),(More)
The Locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO(2) chemoreceptor site in mammals. In the present study, we assessed the role of LC noradrenergic neurons in the cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypercapnia. To selectively destroy LC noradrenergic neurons, we administered 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) bilaterally into the LC of male Wistar rats.(More)
There is evidence that serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is involved in the physiological responses to hypercapnia. Serotonergic neurons represent the major cell type (comprising 15-20% of the neurons) in raphe magnus nucleus (RMg), which is a medullary raphe nucleus. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis 1) that RMg plays a role in the(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) lies in the dorsal pons and supplies noradrenergic (NA) input to many regions of the brain, including respiratory control areas. The LC may provide tonic input for basal respiratory drive and is involved in central chemosensitivity since focal acidosis of the region stimulates ventilation and ablation reduces CO(2)-induced increased(More)
Monoamines (noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (AD), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are key neurotransmitters that are implicated in multiple physiological and pathological brain mechanisms, including control of respiration. The monoaminergic system is known to be widely distributed in the animal kingdom, which indicates a considerable degree of(More)