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Neuroendocrine correlates of chronic stress in human infants have not been established. The goal of the present study was to create an animal model of continuous chronic stress using the immature rat to measure basal plasma corticosterone, and secretion of plasma corticosterone in response to an acute stress. This was achieved by modulation of the cage(More)
Seizures induced by fever are the most prevalent age-specific seizures in infants and young children. Whether they result in long-term sequelae such as neuronal loss and temporal lobe epilepsy is controversial. Prospective studies of human febrile seizures have found no adverse effects on the developing brain. However, adults with temporal lobe epilepsy and(More)
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produces age-dependent limbic seizures in the infant rat. Both the phenotype and the neuroanatomic matrix of CRH-induced seizures resemble the seizures induced by the rigid glutamate analogue, kainic acid (KA), and by rapid amygdala kindling. The experiments described in this study tested the hypothesis that the in vivo(More)
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) has been localized to interneurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex, but these neurons have not been fully characterized. The present study determined the extent of co-localization of CRH with glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and calcium-binding proteins in the infant rat neocortex using immunocytochemistry.(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) excites hippocampal neurons and induces death of selected CA3 pyramidal cells in immature rats. These actions of CRH require activation of specific receptors that are abundant in CA3 during early postnatal development. Given the dramatic effects of CRH on hippocampal neurons and the absence of CRH-containing afferents(More)
By using indirect hemagglutination, the antibody responses of normal infants and children to an octavalent pneumococcal vaccine that contained pneumococcal polysaccharide types 1, 3, 6, 7, 14, 18, 19, and 23 were evaluated. By 2 years of age, there was a significant rise in hemagglutination titers to all the polysaccharide types, except type 19. By 6 to 8(More)
The neuroanatomical substrate of seizures induced by picomolar amounts of corticotropin-releasing hormone in infant rats was investigated. Electrographic and behavioral phenomena were monitored in 42 rat pups aged 5 to 22 days. Rat pups carried bipolar electrodes implanted in subcortical limbic structures, as well as cortical electrodes and(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administered into the cerebral ventricles of rats during the first postnatal week caused a specific and stereotyped behavior sequence: rhythmic chewing and licking (jaw myoclonus) were followed by 'limbic'-type seizures. The onset of the seizures was much more rapid (2-45 min vs 3-7 h) than in adult rats, and the(More)
ACTH has been used extensively for treatment of massive infantile spasms (MIS) and other intractable seizures. The mechanisms by which ACTH exerts anticonvulsant effects are unknown. ACTH is a neuropeptide with both endocrine and neuromodulatory properties; its efficacy against MIS could derive from intrinsic anticonvulsant properties or from hormonal(More)
The ability to respond to adverse environmental cues is present in the neonatal and infant rat, although in an immature form: A number of laboratories have demonstrated stress-induced elevations of plasma glucocorticoids during the first two postnatal weeks. The limbic and hypothalamic mechanisms controlling the hormonal stress-response during this period(More)