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Progression towards AIDS can vary from 5 to 10 years from the establishment of the primary infection by HIV-1 to more than 10 years in the complete absence of antiretroviral therapy. Several factors can contribute to the outcome of HIV infection, including host genetic and viral replicating characteristics. Historically, nef-deleted viral genomes have been(More)
BACKGROUND Protease inhibitors (PI) are an important HIV-1 treatment tool. The HIV-1 genetic diversity as a result of antiretroviral exposure is a potential barrier to successful antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES To describe the impact of the selective pressure of the PI Indinavir in the protease region of the pol gene of HIV-1. STUDY DESIGN We have(More)
BACKGROUND Nef is an accessory protein of primate lentiviruses, HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV. Besides removing CD4 and MHC class I from the surface and activating cellular signaling cascades, Nef also binds GagPol during late stages of the viral replicative cycle. In this report, we investigated further the ability of Nef to facilitate the replication of HIV-1. (More)
The prevalence of HIV infection in Brazil is one of the highest in the world. In addition, transfusion-transmitted HIV accounts for 2.3% of all AIDS cases in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity and distribution of HIV-1 strains circulating in the blood-donor population. We characterized 43 seropositive blood units collected(More)
The antiviral effect of the CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH-soluble fraction from the alga Dictyota menstrualis on HIV-1 replication was evaluated in vitro. The antiretroviral activity was attributed to two diterpenes: (6R)-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial, named Da-1, and (6R)-6-acetoxi-dichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial, named AcDa-1. Da-1 or AcDa-1 were added to the(More)
The atypical Nef protein (NefF12) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain F12 (HIV-1(F12)) interferes with virion production and infectivity via a mysterious mechanism. The correlation of these effects with the unusual perinuclear subcellular localization of NefF12 suggested that the wild-type Nef protein could bind to assembly intermediates in late(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity is one of the remarkable characteristics of these viruses, and the mechanisms involved in the selective forces driving HIV-1 evolution are of great interest. Samples from hosts infected with multiple distinct strains represent a valuable in vivo resource to investigate the role of recombination(More)
The occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombinant genomes belonging to different subtypes is a common event in regions where more than two subtypes cocirculate. Although there are accumulating data toward an increase in the number of intersubtype recombinants, little has been addressed about the biological behavior of such mosaic(More)