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Sleep and the circadian system exert a strong regulatory influence on immune functions. Investigations of the normal sleep–wake cycle showed that immune parameters like numbers of undifferentiated naïve T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines exhibit peaks during early nocturnal sleep whereas circulating numbers of immune cells with(More)
Memory retrieval is impaired at very low as well as very high cortisol levels, but not at intermediate levels. This inverted-U-shaped relationship between cortisol levels and memory retrieval may originate from different roles of the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that bind cortisol with distinctly different affinity. Here, we(More)
Cortisol's effects on memory follow an inverted U-shaped function such that memory retrieval is impaired with very low concentrations, presumably due to insufficient activation of high-affine mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), or with very high concentrations, due to predominant low-affine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Through corresponding(More)
Memory formation is a selective process in which reward contingencies determine which memory is maintained and which is forgotten. Sleep plays a pivotal role in maintaining information for the long term and has been shown to specifically benefit memories that are associated with reward. Key to memory consolidation during sleep is a neuronal reactivation of(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1(More)
The role of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in human T-cell migration is not yet understood. We have recently shown that the MR antagonist spironolactone selectively increases the numbers of circulating naïve and central memory T cells during early sleep, which is the time period in the 24 h cycle hallmarked by predominant MR activation. To investigate(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a key molecule in the regulation of sleep in health and disease. Conversely, sleep compared to sleep deprivation can modulate TNF release, but overall results are conflicting. In this study we focused on the influence of sleep on spontaneous, i.e., unstimulated TNF production, which might be involved in sleep(More)
Sleep supports the formation of immunological memory as evidenced by a stronger immune response to vaccination if subjects sleep during the subsequent night than if they stay awake. One mechanism underlying this adjuvant-like action of sleep might be an enhanced homing of circulating naïve T cells to lymph nodes. Indeed, compared to nocturnal wakefulness,(More)
The role of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in human T-cell migration is not yet understood. We have recently shown that the MR antagonist spironolactone selectively increases the numbers of circulating na¨ıve and central memory T cells during early sleep, which is the time period in the 24 h cycle hallmarked by predominant MR activation. To investigate(More)
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