Lucia Willadino Braga

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Does literacy improve brain function? Does it also entail losses? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to spoken and written language, visual faces, houses, tools, and checkers in adults of variable literacy (10 were illiterate, 22 became literate as adults, and 31 were literate in childhood). As literacy enhanced the(More)
Results are reported from an international project the aim of which has been to develop and validate a wide-ranging questionnaire suitable for administration to brain-injured patients and their relatives. A self-report questionnaire concerning subjective experience of cognitive, emotional and social difficulties (The European Brain Injury Questionnaire,(More)
The acquisition of literacy results from an effortful learning process that leads to functional changes in several cortical regions. We explored whether learning to read also leads to anatomical changes within the left intrahemispheric white matter pathways that interconnect these regions. Using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, we compared illiterates(More)
Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of(More)
Ten simple tasks assessing counting, number processing, elementary calculation and quantity estimation were proposed to 122 normal Brazilian adults aged between 18 and 58 years with 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 years of education. Tasks such as counting the number of elements in small sets were almost perfectly mastered by these illiterate or semi-literate normal(More)
Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to letter(More)
The ability to recognize 2 mirror images as the same picture across left-right inversions exists early on in humans and other primates. In order to learn to read, however, one must discriminate the left-right orientation of letters and distinguish, for instance, b from d. We therefore reasoned that literacy may entail a loss of mirror invariance. To(More)
A comprehensive assessment of both selective (focused attention, divided attention) and intensive (alertness and vigilance) attentional processes was performed on 106 patients with closed head injury using a computerised battery for the evaluation of attention. All patients were tested at least five months after their accident. A high percentage of patients(More)
The purpose of this study was to verify whether brain activation could be used to modulate the movements of an artificial limb. This approach was begun 20 years ago with the fitting of prostheses immediately following lower-limb amputations. We studied 9 unilateral amputees and 9 control participants using functional MRI, electroneuromyography, gait(More)
A retrospective study was performed of 272 patients with spasticity to determine criteria for the prognosis for ambulation based on the ages at which children with cerebral palsy attain important gross motor milestones. The variables analysed were age at last clinical assessment, clinical type of cerebral palsy and ages at attainment of gross motor(More)