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CONTEXT A major limitation on the development of biomarkers and novel interventions for schizophrenia is that its pathogenesis is unknown. Although elevated striatal dopamine activity is thought to be fundamental to schizophrenia, it is unclear when this neurochemical abnormality develops in relation to the onset of illness and how this relates to the(More)
CONTEXT A substantial proportion of people at clinical high risk of psychosis will develop a psychotic disorder over time. However, the risk of transition to psychosis varies between centers, and some recent work suggests that the risk of transition may be declining. OBJECTIVE To quantitatively examine the literature to date reporting the transition risk(More)
CONTEXT During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly(More)
OBJECTIVE The lack of fit of 25 previously published five-factor models for the PANSS items, can be due to the statistics used. The purpose of this study was to use a 'new' statistical method to develop and confirm an improved five-factor model. The improved model is both complex and stable. Complex means that symptoms can have multiple factor loadings,(More)
BACKGROUND The current diagnostic system for subjects at enhanced clinical risk of psychosis allows concurrent comorbid diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorders. Their impact on the presenting high-risk psychopathology, functioning, and transition outcomes has not been widely researched. METHODS In a large sample of subjects with an At-Risk Mental(More)
OBJECTIVE While there is robust evidence of elevated dopamine synthesis capacity once a psychotic disorder has developed, little is known about whether it is altered prior to the first episode of frank illness. The authors addressed this issue by measuring dopamine synthesis capacity in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis and then following them to(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive models propose that faulty appraisal of anomalous experiences is critical in developing psychosis, particularly delusions. A data gathering bias may be fundamental to abnormal appraisal. AIMS To examine whether there is a data gathering bias in people at high risk of developing psychosis. METHOD Individuals with an at-risk mental(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have indicated that people with prodromal signs of psychosis show alterations in the structure and function of the brain when they first present to clinical services. However, the longitudinal course of these abnormalities, and how they relate to subsequent clinical and functional outcome is relatively unclear. METHODS A cohort(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with an "At Risk Mental State" have a 20-30% chance of developing a psychotic disorder within two years; however it is difficult to predict which individuals will become ill on the basis of their clinical symptoms alone. We examined whether mismatch negativity (MMN) could help to identify those who are particularly likely to make a(More)